Reproduction of living Organisms, Asexual Reproduction, Sexual Reproduction

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Reproduction is the process through which living organisms produce young ones of their own species. It is one of the very most important characteristics of living organisms.

Forms of Reproduction

There are two main types of reproduction that are found in animals; asexual and sexual.

Asexual Reproduction

In Asexual reproduction a single parent buds, splits and fragments to give rise two or more young ones that have heredity traits identical with those of parent.

Types- Asexual reproduction takes place in following ways like as:

1- Multiple fission-In this process of asexual reproduction the parent body is divide into many daughter organisms For example amoeba, plasmodium.

2- Binary fission- In binary fission the parent organism divides into two halves; each half is form as an independent daughter organism. Example in amoeba irregular binary fission happens, Euglena-longitudinal binary fission, Paramecium-transverse binary fission.

3-Budding -In budding process, a daughter organism is formed from a small projection and the bud arising from the parent body. A bud or an outgrowth grows externally on the surface of the body. The bud may split away from the parent body and take up an independent existence like as in Hydra or it can remain attached or become a more or less independent member of the colony as in Sycon.

4-Plasmotomy-Plasmotomy is the division of a multinucleate parent into several multinucleate individuals without the division of nuclei. Example opalina.

5-Gemmule formation- Gemmule formation found in the fresh water sponges or few marine sponges. In this buds are formed within the parent’s body. These buds consist of small group of cells archaeocytes enclosed by a protective coat. These internal buds are known as gemmules.

Sexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction involves two parents, each of them contributing a special gamete, an egg that is macrogamete or sperm which fuses to form the fertilized egg. The egg is large in size and non-motile, with a store of nutrients to support the development of embryo. The sperm is usually small in size or motile, it adapted to swim actively to the egg by beating its long, whip like tail.

There are two main types of Sexual reproduction that is: syngamy and conjugation.

1-Syngamy-Syngamy is the complete or permanent fusion of male and female gametes to form the zygote. Syngamy is also of two types:

a) Endogamy(self-fertilization)-It involves the fusion of two gametes from the same parent. Thus it is uniparental. Example Taenia.

b) Exogamy(cross-fertilization)- Exogamy involves the fusion of two gametes that is produced by different parents. Thus it is biparental. Example Rabbit.

Syngamy is further divided into two types with regard to structure of fusing gametes:

a) Isogamy-It contains the fusion of two identical gametes. Like gametes are called isogametes example Monocystis.

b) Anisogamy-Anisogamy involves the fusion of two dissimilar gametes. Such gametes are known as heterogametes example humans.

2) Conjugation-It involves temporary union of two parents of the same species that exchange their male pronuclei to synkaryon and then separate to produce daughter individuals. It found in Paramecium.

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