Microbiology, Theory of Microorganisms, Assignment Help

Biology Assignment Help >> Microbiology, Theory of Microorganisms

Microbiology word is taken from Greek mīkros, μῑκρος, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular, microscopic, and cell-cluster organisms. This includes eukaryotes like as fungi and protists, or prokaryotes. Viruses or prions, though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied. Microbiology includes the study of the immune system, or Immunology. Commonly, immune systems interact with pathogenic microbes.

Microbiology is a broad term which includes mycology ,virology, bacteriology, parasitology and other branches. A microbiologist is a specialist in microbiology or these other topics.

Microbiology is researched actively, and its field is advancing continually. Microbiology is estimated only about one percent of all of the microbe species on Earth that t have been studied. Although the microbes were directly observed about three hundred years ago, the scope of microbiology can be said to be in its infancy relative to older biological disciplines like as botany and zoology .

The presence of microorganisms was hypothesized for many centuries before they actual discover. The existence of unseen microbiological life was postulated by Jainism which is based on Mahavira’s teachings. Paul Dundas notes that Mahavira asserted presence of unseen microbiological creatures which are living in earth, air, water, and fire. Jain scriptures also describe nigodas that is sub-microscopic creatures living in large clusters or having a very short life and said to pervade each or every part of the universe, even in the tissues of plants and in the flesh of animals.

However, early claims about the presence of microorganisms were speculative, and was not based on any microscopic observation. Actual observation or discovery of microbes had to await the invention of the microscope in the 17th century.

In 1676, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek observed the bacteria or other microorganisms, using a single-lens microscope of his own design. The first observation of microbes using a microscope is generally credited to the Dutch draper or haberdasher.

The field of bacteriology which is later a subdiscipline of microbiology was founded in the 19th century by Ferdinand Cohn, a botanist.Whose studies on algae or photosynthetic bacteria. Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur were contemporaries of Cohn’s and are considered to be the father of microbiology or medical microbiology. Until the late 19th century according the work of Sergei Winogradsky or Martinus Beijerinck was the founders of general microbiology. An older term that is encompassing aspects of microbial physiology, ecology and diversity the true breadth of microbiology was revealed. Beijerinck made two big contributions in microbiology: that is the discovery of viruses or the development of enrichment culture techniques.

Importance of Microbiology

Microbiology is a fundamental biological science which deals with microorganisms and their related concepts. This includes prokaryotes (organisms without a nucleus), such as bacteria and eukaryotes (organisms with a nucleus), such as fungi and protists, and viruses. It covers a wide spectrum of specialized areas that show how microbes affect our environment, animal and human health, agriculture and food technology, pharmacy and nursing as well as the biotechnology. It associates withour Everyday life.

Foods like Alcohol, Curd, Bread, SoyaSauce, SCP protein etc. are produced by the biochemical reactions of microorganism.Medicines like antibiotics, enzymes, vaccines, insulin, steroids, Vitamins etc. are exclusively obtained from microbial cultures.

Microbiology offers many opportunities. Microbiologists study microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi, and parasites. They try to understand how these organisms grow, live and interact with their environment. Many microbiologists work in research and development. The aim of Microbiologist is to increase scientific knowledge about microbes and develop new products to solve particular problems. For example, microbiologists may develop genetically engineered crops, better biofuels, or new vaccines.

Many microbiologists are teachers and professors.

Medical microbiology also known as ‘’’clinical microbiology’’, related with the study of microbes, such as bacteria, Parasites, Fungi and viruses which cause a human as well as plant and animal illness and their role in the disease.

Difficulties faced by Studentsin Microbiology Problems

Primarily, Microbiology is an advanced study in Biology. A good knowledge of Basic Fundamentals like Terminology, Methodology, Concepts, etc. proves highly beneficial. While solving a problem relating to Microbiology, students generally face difficulties for items where they lack clarity in the basic fundamentals relating to the problem.

Fields or sub decipline of Microbiology

The field of microbiology may be divided into several sub disciplines:

Microbial physiology: This field involves the study of microbial metabolism ,microbial cell structure and microbial growth.

Microbial genetics: The study of how genes are regulated and organized in microbes in relation to their cellular functions .this is closely related to the field of molecular biology.

Cellular microbiology: This discipline bridging cell biology and microbiology.

Medical microbiology: This field includes the study of microbial pathogenesis or epidemiology and it is related to the study of disease immunology and pathology.

Veterinary microbiology: The study of the role in microbes in animal taxonomy or veterinary medicine.

Environmental microbiology: It Includes the study of microbial ecology, microbially-mediated nutrient cycling, , microbial diversity, geomicrobiology and bioremediation.

Evolutionary microbiology: This Includes the study of bacterial systematics and taxonomy.

Industrial microbiology: This field includes brewing, an important application of microbiology.

Aeromicrobiology: The study of airborne microorganisms.

Food microbiology: The study of microorganisms causing food spoilage or foodborne illness. Using microorganisms for produce foods, for example by fermentation.

Pharmaceutical microbiology: The study of microorganisms causing pharmaceutical contamination and spoil.

Agricultural microbiology: It includes the study of agriculturaly important microorganisms.

Water microbiology: The study of those microorganisms that are found in water.

Soil microbiology: The study of those microorganisms that are found in soil.

Generation microbiology: The study of those microorganisms that have the same characters as their parents have.

Nano microbiology: The study of those microorganisms which are at nano level.

Bacteria may be used for the industrial production of amino acids. A variety of biopolymers, such as , polyamides, polyesters and polysaccharides are produced by microorganisms. Microorganisms are used for the biotechnological production of biopolymers with tailored properties suitable for high-value medical application. Microorganisms are used for the biosynthesis of cellulose, alginate, cyanophycin, poly(gamma-glutamic acid), hyaluronic acid, levan ,organic acids, polysaccharide, oligosaccharides and polyhydroxyalkanoates.

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