Homoeostasis, Biology, Assignment Help

Biology Assignment Help >> Homoeostasis

Homoeostasis is the maintenance of favourable internal conditions by a self regulating mechanism. Favourable internal condition helps the cells to continue their metabolic activities at a highest level despite unfavourable external conditions. Optimum internal conditions are maintained by the joint activities of all the cells except specialized reproductive cells of a multicellular organism. Homoeostasis is not bounded to any single level of organization. It is functional at all levels of organization that is found in living beings like as individual, community, population, biosphere and ecosystem. Some examples of homoeostasis are as following:

1- Nothing is visible immediately after entering in a dark room but after some time eyes become adjusted to see in dim light

2-In winter season, skin contracts to conserve body heat.

3 Running up a flight of stairs and during exercise the heart start beating much faster than the normal that is 72 times per minute, in order to supply extra blood to muscles or tissues which are made to perform extra work. After some rest the heart beat returns to normal rate.

4- A mild infection and a minor cut heal up automatically after some time.

5-Vigorous exercise is raise body temperature. It is brought back to normal from sweating. Sweating in summer is mean for bringing down the body temperature which has the tendency to rise due to the higher external temperature. -

All the homoeostatic mechanisms have not fully understood. For example why do cells divide, how many times the cells shall divide, how do cells start dividing, when would cell stop dividing, how do the different types of cells having different metabolism coordinate for maintaining the body homoeostasis. However mostly the known modes of homoeostasis occur through the feed-back system. Homoeostasis is a system in which the rate of product formation is regulated by gathering information about the amount that left out at any time. For example thyroxin hormone regulates the rate of metabolism of the cells. Thyroxin is produced by thyroid gland or is passed into blood. Its level is measured by hypothalamus. If the concentration is less than the normal, hypothalamus produces a releasing hormone that is the TSH-RH. The releasing hormone that is TSH-RH stimulates pituitary gland to secrete TSH or thyroid stimulating hormone.TSH harmone activates thyroid gland for produce the thyroxine. If thyroxine level is higher in blood, the hypothalamus stops forming releasing the hormone that is in turn inhibits the production of TSH by the pituitary. In form of result no thyroxine is secreted by thyroid gland. This is called as negative feedback.

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