Introduction of Genetics, Function and Molecular Structure of Genes

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Introduction of Genetics

Genetics is the field of biology which deals with the function and molecular structure of genes, then gene behavior concerning an organism or cell, various patterns of inheritance from parent to children, gene distribution, variation and modifications in populations. Provided that genes are universal to living organisms, genetics can be useful for the study of all living systems ranging from bacteria to viruses, plants or domestic animals, to humans.

Right from the ancient times the basics of genetics have been used to get better crop plants and animals through selective breeding. On the other hand, the modern science of genetics, which tries to understand the process of inheritance, simply initiated with the work of Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century. Though he was not acquainted with the physical basis for heredity, Mendel noticed that organisms inherit characters through discrete units of inheritance, known as genes. Whenever we talk about genes the word DNA comes automatically which is a molecule consists of a chain of four different types of nucleotides and the sequence of these nucleotides is the genetic information organisms succeed to. DNA basically occurs in a double stranded form, in the company of nucleotides on each strand complementary to each other. Every strand can act as a template for generating a new partner strand. And this is the physical technique for generating copies of genes that can be inherited.

The sequence of nucleotides in a gene is translated by cells in order to produce a string of amino acids, producing protein; the arrangement and order of amino acids in a protein related to the order of nucleotides in the gene. Genetic code is the relationship between amino acid sequence and nucleotide sequence. The amino acids in a protein decide how it folds into 3-D; in addition this structure is liable for the protein's function. Nearly all the functions needed for cells to live are carried out by proteins. An alteration to the DNA in a gene can modify a protein's amino acids, altering its function and shape. Even though genetics plays a vital role in the behavior and appearance of organisms, it is the combination of genetics plus an organism’s experiences that determine the final outcome. Say for instance, genes play a big role in determining an organism's size, but the nutrition and health it experiences after setting up also have a huge consequence.

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