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Biology Assignment Help >> DNA - RNA

Ribonucleic Acid or RNA is one of the three chief macromolecules that are vital for all known forms of life. RNA is consisted of a long chain of components known as nucleotides. Every nucleotide includes a nucleobase (often called as nitrogenous base), a phosphate group and a ribose sugar. The sequence of nucleotides lets RNA to encode the genetic information. Say for instance, a few viruses use RNA rather than DNA as their genetic material, plus all organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to bear the genetic information that directs the synthesis of proteins. Similar to proteins, a quantity of RNA molecules plays an important role in cells by catalyzing various biological reactions, scheming gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals or indications. One example of these active processes is protein synthesis, which is a universal function whereby mRNA molecules direct the assembly of proteins on ribosome. The process uses transfer RNA or tRNA molecules to transport amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA or rRNA associates with amino acids to form proteins.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid or DNA is a nucleic acid which holds the genetic instructions used in the functioning and growth of all known living organisms (RNA virus is an exceptional case). The key role of DNA molecules is nothing but the long-term storage space of information. DNA includes two long polymers of simple units known as nucleotides, in the company of backbones made of phosphate groups and sugars joined by ester bonds. These two strands run in reverse directions to each other, thus they are anti-parallel.

Both RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, although there are three major differences between them. Firstly, DNA is double stranded and RNA is single stranded. Second difference is that, DNA contains deoxyribose, on the other hand RNA contains ribose. Thirdly, in RNA the complementary base to adenine is not thymine, as in DNA it is thymine; however it is uracil which is an unmethylated form of thymine.

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