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PLEASE REBUTTAL, RESPOND AND ANSWER EACH OF THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS OR POST STATEMENTS. MUST BE 150 WORDS (PLEASE), WRITE IN 3RD PERSON. ONLY ONE REFERENCE CAN BE USED FOR EACH ANSWER.
My topic is on Global leadership with emphasis on transformational leaders. I chose to use qualitative rather than quantitative method for the following reasons. Although the quantitative method is simple and less time consuming, I prefer to use qualitative method because there are fewer threats to external validity, and subjects are studied in their natural setting and encounter fewer controlling factors compared with quantitative research conditions (Sandelowski 1986). My problem with quantitative method, (besides my dislike of statistical analysis) is that it is rigorous and impersonal. It deals with numbers, rather than individuals, and thereby giving this method an artificial or unnatural aspect. For example in order to control the variables, the researcher is forced to create an artificial environment. Moreover, there is bias in that the research only shares artificial information using measures that are only related to a small portion of the population being studied. Moreover, the numbers do not always give exact information on the subject being studied. However, the Advantage of using the qualitative method is that the findings from quantitative research can be predictive, explanatory, and confirming. It involves the collection of data so that information can be quantified and subjected to statistical treatment in order to support or refute alternate knowledge claims". (Creswell, J. 2003 p.18) The results can be reduced to a few numerical statistics and interpreted in a few short statements.
Carr, L. (1994). The strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative research: what method for nursing?. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 20(4), 716-721 6p. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1994.20040716.x
Williams, C. (2011). Research methods. Journal of Business & Economics Research (JBER), 5(3).
Before we start our dissertation we need to have a clear plan and one of them is to decide the research methodology and how it is going to be implemented. GCU recommended to go with qualitative methodology but possible that we may have to use one of the quantitative methodology designs.
The advantage that I see here for my dissertation is that when I interview the ten organizations I may want to use causal-comparative design in which two groups are compared with the intent of understanding the "causes" or "reasons" for differences between two groups (GCU, 2012). I understand GCU recommends is to go with qualitative in our research work. One advantage I see in this kind of study is that it is quick, relatively can be cost efficient and most importantly a valid method of inquiry by researchers and academicians (McClendon, 2016). I find this to be useful for my dissertation as it can contain measurable and quantifiable data and above all will have a structured data that can be very useful and can be replicated across. It is advantageous as this method is deductive, and very structured. There are 5 core quantitative designs that I can select from and have to decide which ones will be more appropriate. These are the ones I may consider to implement from that GCU has endorsed.
• Causal comparative
Grand Canyon University. (GCU). (2012). Lecture 7: Quantitative research design. [HTML document]. Retrieved from https://lc-grad2.gcu.edu
In his literature review. Decker(2012) addresses the experience of fun at work. He identifies several different kinds of "fun" experiences: spontaneous worker initiated fun, management planned fun, and fun that is directly related to the work at hand. Since people, workers, supervisors, and potentially clients, are experiencing the phenomenon of employees "goofing off" on the job, the issue can be explored from a qualitative perspective. According to Prion and Adamson (2012), qualitative research assumes a perspective that solicits "truth" from the participants. The participants' "values, beliefs, and experiences" are placed front and center in the investigation (Prion & Adamson, 2012).
Since Decker (2012) chose to conduct a quantitative study, the researcher chose a questionnaire as his data collection tool. Four categories from "not at all" to "very high" were utilized to measure the level of a participant's response to each question. If one was to propose a qualitative study for this research, a smaller number of participants could be interviewed. videotaped, and the conversations transcribed; additional training may be needed by the researcher in order to learn how to properly and rigorously conduct interviews to academic research standards (Swenson, 1996). The qualitative study questions developed by Decker (2012) could be used to structure the interview protocol. Data coding and categorization are used in the analyses to identify and confirm themes of the investigation (Prion & Adamson, 2014). Validation and confirmation of the conclusions of the researcher by the participants is an essential element of the qualitative process; a stage of recontacting the participants would, therefore, need to be planned into the data collection and analysis approaches (Prion & Adamson, 2012).
Decker, W. H. (2012). Unauthorized Fun at Work (Goofing Off): Predictors and Implications. International Journal Of Business & Social Science, 3(5), 1-7.
Prion, S., & Adamson, K. A. (2014). Making sense of methods and measurement: rigor in qualitative research. Clinical Simulation In Nursing, 10(2), e107-8 1p. doi:10.1016/j.ecns.2013.05.003
Swenson, Melinda M. 1996. "Essential elements in a qualitative dissertation proposal." Journal Of Nursing Education 35, 188-190. OmniFile Full Text Select (H.W. Wilson), EBSCOhost (accessed June 11, 2016).
In order to help Decker (2012) understand the role of fun in the work environment, a quantitative methodology was appropriate for this study. This study generated responses from a large number of college students working managerial jobs and non-managerial; some full-time, part-time and some were unemployed. The researcher used a 6-page questionnaire. There first few pages explained the general purpose of the study and collected personal information concerning age, gender, education and employment status. While the remainder asked questions pertaining to having fun on the job, whether it was just goofing off or structured activities of fun (Decker, 2012). A qualitative study with a smaller number of participants would have also been an appropriate approach because this study would have rendered more personal responses through interviews and specific questions tailored to this design. Although appropriate, the disadvantage of a qualitative study may perhaps produce more biased answers because people tend to be less honest when answering questions having to give particular rationales for given situations. As we learned from research, qualitative studies requiring interviews produces richness and depth because one the added advantage is understanding the experiences and attitudes of the participants (McCusker&Gunaydin, 2015).
Decker, W. H. (2012). Unauthorized fun at work (goofing off): Predictors and implications. International Journal of Business & Social Science, 3(5), 1-7.
McCusker, K., &Gunaydin, S. (2015). Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods and choice based on the research. Perfusion, 30(7), 537-542.