Tools used in assessing work-related musculoskeletal risks

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Reference no: EM132785

QUESTION 1

a) Consider the two situations given below and propose solutions to respective problems raised in each case by using your knowledge acquired in Ergonomics

i) Case Study 1: Restaurant serving food

A large city hotel was being re-furbished and updated. It was thought that the dining room and its equipment could be improved to be both more efficient, and to reduce injury risk to staff. The management and staff were consulted and their main issues noted. The dining room and the staff were observed in busy and quiet times. Issues and observations included

• the waiters and waitresses carried large, heavy trays

• crockery was thick and heavy

• the sideboard unit where most of the clean crockery and glassware was kept was located at one end of the dining room, with shelves from waist height to floor level; and

• in busy periods staff carried more plates and were quickly and constantly moving between tables and the kitchen and sideboard

ii) Case Study 2: Quality of lighting in new office building

A company moved into an old building, and the office staff started to complain about a number of issues, including the lighting. After consulting with the manager and the office staff to find out more about their duties and their concerns with the lighting, the general office layout, equipment and tasks were assessed. The following issues were raised-

• illumination levels at most work areas were well below standards for the tasks being performed

• lighting was variable and resulted in an unsatisfactory affect from patchiness and areas of distinct shadow

• lights were spaced far apart on a high ceiling, and lacked any diffuser system

• natural light was coming from the eastern windows, and these lacked any window coverings

• staff having a variety of desks including those with glossy black or white tops - when the white tops had the sunshine directly on them it created reflected glare, and white papers on the black desks also generated an extreme visual contrast

• most desks being positioned in line with the eastern windows, with the staff sitting with their backs to the windows, or facing the windows. Staff with their backs to the light were working in their own shadow, and often had their computer screens flooded with light and reflecting the sun (facing the windows also made the screen viewing difficult)

• many staff working from documents with a very small font (8 and 9 point) on large spreadsheets, as well as reading handwritten letters and cheques, and

• many data entry staff having the papers and cheques positioned flat on the desks to one side, thus tending to lean and twist when reading the data for entry

b) Outline four of the tools used in assessing work-related musculoskeletal risks

QUESTION 2

a) Describe the health hazards that may be encountered by cashiers who work at checkouts in hypermarkets

b) Outline the contents of a training programme that could help limit the severity and risk of musculoskeletal disorders

QUESTION 3

Describe the main features that should be considered in the design of hand tools with particular reference to their handles

QUESTION 4

a) Identify the types of injury that may be caused by the incorrect manual handling of loads

b) Briefly describe a good handling technique that could be adopted by a person required to lift a load from the ground

c) Explain why lumbar belts are not very effective in preventing back injuries at work

QUESTION 5

Identify the safety and health risks that employees could be exposed while working in call centres at the Cybercity and outline the corresponding precautions that could be taken to reduce such risks

Reference no: EM132785

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