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1. Lab Activities1. Noting the potential birth regions for tropical cyclone formation, view the "Stitched Global IR" satellite image from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Monterey (Satellite Division) Web site. (Be very careful not to confusemidlatitude cyclones with tropical cyclones. Also, you may use the NRL Monterey (Satellite Division) "Tropical Cyclones" section to help you in this activity.)a. Check for cloud patterns that may be associated with the formation or development of tropical systems. Include a copy or printout of your chosen satellite image, clearly indicating the location of your tropical system.b. What is your estimated stage of development of the tropical system (tropical disturbance, tropical depression, tropical storm, tropical cyclone)?c. What are the different means used to determine the particular stage of development?2. Figure 12.1 displays the track for Atlantic Hurricane Isabel in September of 2003 as it approached the U.S. East Coast. The position of the hurricane's center is at time 1800Z 17 September 2003 (displayed on the map as 1718Z). All positions (in blue) depict actual past hurricane positions, while all positions after 1800Z 17 September are forecasted positions. All positions (past and forecasted) are spaced 12 hours apart.Figure 12.1Hurricane Isabel Track, September 2003 Source: NRL Monterey Satellite Division (Tropical Cyclones), http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/tc_pages/tc_home.htmla. What is the estimated position (latitude and longitude) of the hurricane eye at 1800Z 17 September 2003?b. What is the estimated movement of the hurricane's eye (direction and speed) at 1800Z 17 September 2003? (Note that movement of the hurricane's eye is not the same as the hurricane wind speeds).c. What is the forecasted time and location of hurricane landfall?d. After 1800Z 17 September 2003, is the hurricane forecasted to slow down or speed up? Explain.e. What is the forecasted movement of the hurricane eye (direction and speed) immediately after landfall?Lesson 13: Climate ChangeObjectivesAfter successfully completing this lesson, you should be able to:• ensure that you know the difference between the atmospheric greenhouse effect and global warming• look critically at global average temperature data and carbon dioxide concentration data and note the extreme variations between high and low values over the past several thousand years• look at global average temperature data and carbon dioxide concentration data and describe the correlation between the twoKey Concepts1. Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's lower atmosphere over the past several years. A primary focal point is determining what is causing the temperature increase.2. An enhanced atmospheric greenhouse effect, caused by rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere, is hypothesized to be the reason for our planet's warming trend.3. The Keeling curve shows a consistent overall rise in carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations measured at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii since 1958.4. The Global Oceanic Conveyor Belt is a global thermohaline circulation that is theorized to act as a moderator of global climate by circulating relatively warm ocean temperatures to the polar regions and relatively cool temperatures to the tropical regions.Lab Activities1. The Keeling Curve shows the steady increase of carbon dioxide gas concentrations over the years. Within the overall general increase shown by the curve is a "sawtooth" pattern. Explain the cause of that sawtooth pattern.2. Describe the processes involved in the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Include the relevant parts of the electromagnetic spectrum and the significant atmospheric gases involved. Is the greenhouse effect bad for us and our planet? Explain.3. Look at figure 13.1 and analyze the graph of global average temperature variation and carbon dioxide concentration over the past 400,000 years. Based on this graph:a. How were scientists able to collect the temperature and carbon dioxide data to construct this graph?b. Describe the correlation of temperature and carbon dioxide.c. Over the past 400,000 years, what has been the lowest temperature and what has been the highest temperature? When did they occur?d. Describe the carbon dioxide concentration trend over the last 10,000 years. What can you say about the temperature trend over the last 10,000 years?Figure 13.1 Source: Davies & Company, Forest Resource Management,http://www.daviesand.com/Choices/Precautionary_Planning/New_Data/
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