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INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY 1100

1. The core concept of ___________________________is that the likelihood that a behaviour will occur again depends on it's consequences.

a. Classical Conditioning

b. Operant Conditioning'

c. Aversive Conditioning

d. Vicarious Conditioning

2. Henia discovered that when her car approaches the driveways of dogs she gives treats to on her mail run, they are already at the road waiting for her. In classical conditioning terms, the unique sound of her car is a/an _________________________ and the dogs now running to the road ahead of her is a/an ________________________.

a) conditioned response... unconditioned stimulus

b) unconditioned stimulus... conditioned response

c) conditioned stimulus... conditioned response

d) conditioned stimulus... unconditioned stimulus

e) conditioned stimulus...unconditioned response

3. Terry developed an intense fear of riding motorcycles 2 years ago when he was injured in a major accident. Today, after numerous, uneventful motorcycle rides, he can again drive without distress. Which of the following best describes what has happened to Terry's fear of riding motorcycles?

a) it was negatively reinforced

b) it underwent extinction

c) it underwent spontaneous recovery

d) it generalized

4. When Tom was 8 years old he stepped on a wasp nest and was traumatized by the stings and the pain. His fear did not stay limited to wasps. He began to fear bees, hornets, flies and most all insects. This best illustrates:

a) latent learning

b) stimulus generalization

c) negative reinforcement

d) shaping

e) stimulus discrimination

5. Jen has a phobia of driving on the highway and consistently chooses to take routes through the city instead. She feels immediate relief from the panic when that choice is made. What mechanism is entrenching (maintaining) her fear of driving on highways?

a) negative reinforcement

b) positive reinforcement

c) classical conditioning

d) positive punishment

e) latent learning

6. Barry is a handful at preschool. But it seems that the more the teacher scolds him, the more he misbehaves. In this case, the teacher's actions are _______________________ Barry's misbehaviours.

a) negatively reinforcing b) positively reinforcing

c) classically conditioning d) positively punishing

e) negatively punishing

7. We discussed many ways in which phobias can develop. What is the proper term for when someone develops a phobia by mimicking the fear responses of a parent or other family member. (as when my pal developed the same fear of mice her mom had)

a. Direct Trauma

b. Modelling

c. Vicarious Conditioning

d. Shaping

8. All of the following are examples of NEGATIVE PUNISHMENT

EXCEPT:

a) grounding a teenager for coming home after curfew

b) revoking the driving privileges of a traffic offender

c) withholding dessert from a child for swearing at the dinner table

d) getting a fine for driving too fast

e) each of the above DOES illustrate negative punishment

9. Regarding conditioning, PREPARED LEARNING refers to

a) an organism's faster responses once it has experience with a particular experimental apparatus

b) the biologically wired, evolution-based preparedness of an organism to learn some associations (like phobias) more easily than others

c) the tendency of organisms to prepare ahead of time for unpleasant outcomes

d) the ability of an organism to learn to manipulate the environment to produce a desired consequence

10. A victim of sexual harassment at work is highly uncomfortable when male office mates tell "dirty jokes", yet she laughs at a dirty joke told by her husband. Her different responses to seemingly similar situations are an example of the influence of __________________________.

a) selective extinction

b) adaptive generalization

c) drisciminitive stimuli

d) spontaneous recovery

11. With POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT, __________________ and thus our preceding behaviour is __________________ to happen again.

a. something painful or aversive is taken away......less likely

b. something painful or aversive is taken away....more likely

c. something pleasant or wanted is taken away....less likely

d. something pleasant or wanted is the result....more likely

12. Positive Punishment involves ________________.

a. Taking away priviledges or other things people want

b. applying an aversive/painful stimulus to reduce the behaviour

c. using techniques from the Humanistic View to understand and reason with a child

d. encouraging those who have failed to try harder

13. When Pavlov's dogs underwent extinction trials (bell...but no food), after a 20 min break, they had a temporary resurgence of their salivation response to the sound of the bell. What is this referred to as?

a. Stimulus Generalization

b. Stimulus Discrimination

c. Spontaneous Recovery

d. Operant Conditioning response

14. A diving coach has guided and rewarded Eric for stringing together a complex series of moves he already new how to perform into a new and challenging sequence for his Olympic trials. This is an example of

a) direct tutelage

b) chaining

c) discrimination

d) shaping

e) vicarious conditioning

15. Random, unannounced pop quizzes, or factory inspections operate on a ------ schedule of reinforcement.

a) fixed ratio

b) fixed interval

c) variable ratio

d) variable interval

16. Which of the following is an example of "LATENT LEARNING"?

a. Jane learned how to play the piano as a child and can still play a song or two

b. Joey learned how to speak Italian as a child, but can no longer remember more than a few words

c. Jack surprised himself on a midterm by correctly answering a complicated question that he wasn't even sure he'd learned well enough earlier.

d. Jenna is trying to learn how to speak Greek by playing tapes at night while she sleeps

17. After recovering from a serious bicycle accident, Gina was afraid to ride a bicycle, but not a motorcycle or a car. Gina's pattern of fear best illustrates _______.

a) latent learning

b) spontaneous recovery

c) negative reinforcement

d) stimulus generalization

e) stimulus discrimination

18. It's easier to condition young children to fear animal than to fear toys. (just ask poor little Albert). This best illustrates the role of ______________ in learning.

a) biological preparedness/prepared learning

b) latent learning

c) observational learning

d) primary reinforcement

19. In order to teach my new dog to perform basic tricks like to sit up an beg, or shake a paw I'd be best off using ___________________.

a) shaping her behaviour by rewarding successive approximations

b) using the techniques involved in chaining

c) delayed reinforcement techniques

d) reverse conditioning

20. Which of the following is the best example of negative reinforcement?

a) stubbing your toe while rushing to get dressed

b) having to pay a fine for speeding

c) opening an umbrella to stop the rain from hitting your head

d) all of the above are examples of negative reinforcement

21. Which of the following statements is TRUE with respect to observational learning of a model's behavior? (Think Albert Bandura + Bobo)

a) observational learning does not occur unless the model is similar (in age, gender, race) to the observer

b) observational learning does not occur unless the observer performs the behavior him or herself and is then rewarded

c) reinforcement/punishment of the model is most predictive of whether the observer will perform the behavior

d) if the observer's behaviour doesn't show immediate change, no learning has taken place True/False for chapter 5

22. Experiments have shown that presenting the NS (Neutral stimulus) soon to become a CS (Conditioned Stimulus) just before the UCS (Unconditioned stimulus) is the most effective way of classically conditioning a response. T F

23. Jefferey Grey's Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) is most closely associated with the neurochemical Dopamine. T F

24. In negative reinforcement the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated Decreases. T F

25. According to the behavioural school, learning involves a relatively permanent change in an organsisms bahviour due to experience T F

chapter 6 items

1. The best explanation for the both parts of the SERIAL POSITION EFFECT is that

a) items at the beginning of the list are still in short term memory; items at the end are still in sensory memory

b) items at the beginning of the list are starting to form long term memory traces due to rehearsal; items at the end are still in short term memory

c) items at the beginning of the list have undergone elaborative rehearsal;items at the end have not

d) items at the beginning and end of the list have been elaborated and are on their way to long term memory; those in the middle have not

2. When my former student used his existing memory for every NHL player and their Jersey numbers to help him use visualization for encoding and remembering phone numbers. (he would memorize the first three digits then visualize the players with the next set of numbers standing side by side) Which of the following is accurate.

a. He employing the basic idea behind the "DUAL CODING THEORY" of memory.

b. He as making learning and remembering easier by using more than one method of encoding the information.

c. He was employing a Mneumonic device

d. a and b are correct

e. all of the above are correct

3. Which of the following is NOT TRUE of our SHORT TERM MEMORY?

a) its typical duration, without rehearsal, is 10 to 30 seconds

b) two seconds of distraction can dislodge information from STM

c) STM utilizes information from sensory memory and long term memory

d) its usual capacity is 5 to 9 chunks of information

e) all of the above ARE TRUE of our STM

4. Which of the following kinds of memory involve a brief lingering of things seen and heard that lasts for a second or two and allows for continuity in our visual experiences

a. Sensory Memory

b. Iconic Memory

c. Echoic Memory

d. b. And c. Are correct

e. all of the above are correct

5. Which of the following is the best example of "CHUNKING"?

a) Mike crams more and more isolated history facts into his LTM

b) David links up new facts to information already stored in his STM

c) Kerrie spaces out his studying into several separate sessions over 10 days

d) Dan encodes all of the parts of the limbic system by creating an acronym with the first letter of each part, and making a sentence out of it: (, Thalamus, Hippocampus, Amygdala, Hypothalamus becomes: The Happy Apple Hollered) =o)

6. Sonja thinks she was born with a bad memory and there's nothing she can do about it. What would most memory researchers tell her?
a) She's correct. Differences in memory ability are largely genetic and set at birth.

b) She's incorrect. She can best improve her memory by working on her retrieval skills.

c) She's incorrect. She can best improve her memory by working on her encoding skills.

d) She's incorrect. Although not readily available, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) appears to boost memory recall for short periods in experiments

e) She's incorrect. There may be "Smart drugs" on the horizon designed to improve learning and memory

f) c, d, and e are correct

g) b, d and e are correct

7. The classic study cited in our text, placed college student subjects in a "graduate school office" for a brief period of time and then asked them to recall what they saw in the office. The fact that they recalled seeing things that were not actually there supports the notion of ___________________.

a) high reliability in self reports

b) the reconstructive role of cognitive schemas

c) the relative ease with which false memories can be created

d) the bias of operational definitions

e) the limited capacity of STM

f) b and c are correct

8. If a witness was asked to recall an accident scene, and does so very efficiently because she is in the same heightened emotional state as when the incident happened her memory is being aided by _______________________. If her memory was aided by being back at the scene of the incident, re-creating it, her memory would also be enhanced by __________________________.

a. cognitive schemas

b. encoding specificity theory

c. state dependent memory

d. context-based retrieval cues

e. both a. and b. Are correct

f. both c and d. are correct

9. Remembering how to ride a bike is a(n) ____________________ memory; remembering that a bike is a type of transportation is a(n) __________________________ memory; remembering that you got your first bike when you were 5 years old is a _______________________ memory.

a) semantic...episodic......procedural

b) procedural .....episodic...semantic

c) Procedural...semantic...episodic

d) episodic....procedural....semantic

e) semantic....procedural....episodic

10. Research on patients who have suffered damage to it, (Like H.M. and E.P. who wound up with anterograde amnesia)) has demonstrated that the HIPPOCAMPUS is central to the consolidation (forming) of _____________________________ memories, but does not appear essential to the formation of ___________________________ memories.

a) explicit...implicit/procedural

b) episodic...semantic

c) short term...long term

d) implicit/procedural...explicit

11. What type of memories start out as motoric representations requiring conscious thought and effort, but once well learned become nearly automated by lower brain structures such as the Cerebellum?

a. Procedural

b. Flashbulb

c. Prospective

d. Explicit

e. Retrospective

12. What specific type of memory might we develop after a personal, or globally traumatic event? (lots of examples given in class!)

a. Iconic

b. Sensory

c. Flashbulb

c. Implicit

d. Procedural

13. In priming experiments people come to prefer faces and shapes that were flashed to them subliminally (too quickly to be consciously
registered). This has come to be known as ______________________.

a) explicit memory induction

b) the mere exposure effect

c) implicit memory blocking

d) false memory implantation

14. I was typing away, thinking about this being your "Christmas Exam", (in my culture) and found myself thinking about Christmas....the tree...gifts....cooking, what to make...what to have for dinner tonight....what I need to get later this week. This notion that activating one node in a memory network triggers activity in nodes which store related information is known as ______________________________________________.

a) the brainstorm theory

b) long term potentiation theory

c) the spreading activation theory

d) schematic spill-over theory

15. I rearranged my "junk" drawers 6 months ago, but find myself still going back to where I used to keep the scotch tape. This tendency for older memories to interfere with newer ones is officially called ________________

a. encoding failure

b. proactive interference

c. the spacing effect

d. retroactive interference

e. retrieval failure

16. In those suffering from organic ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA _____________________.

a. brain damage is involved

b. procedural memory is heavily affected

c. implicit memory is severely hampered

d. they cannot remember anything from before their brain was damaged

e. they cannot identify simple everyday objects

f. their IQ scores go down significantly

g. All of the above are correct

17.__________________ Involves making new material personal, coming up with examples, really understanding concepts and is much preferred to _________________________ involving simple repetition, when it comes to forming lasting memory traces.

a. Maintenance rehearsal.....Elaborative Rehearsal

b. Elaborative rehearsal....Maintenance Rehearsal

c. Spreading Activation theory.....Elaborative Rehearsal

d. Proactive memory......Retroactive memory

18. Which of the following is NOT associated with KORSAKOFF'S SYNDROME?

a) a deficiency of the vitamin Thiamine

b) impaired ability to form new implicit memories

c) chronic alcoholism

d) a tendency to "confabulate" or make up stories to fill in the gaps of their poor memory for recent events

e) all of the above are associated with this syndrome

19. Which physiological change is NOT associated with the formation of memories?

a) the strengthening of neural circuits via new synapses forming

b) the tiny spines covering the dendrites involved becoming more rounded and more receptive to stimulation

c) decreased acetylcholine production

d) Increased Glutamate production

e) an increase in the number of certain synapses

f) all of the above ARE part of memory formation

20. The Hippocampus is where our long term memories are stored T F

21. Active neurogenesis in early childhood helps explain the Phenomenon of Infantile Amnesia T F

22. False memories are rare and can be implanted only via careful Techniques. T F

23. In Hyperthymestic syndrome no emotions are attached to The detailed personal memories they can recall at will. T F

24. Repression of traumatic memories is the key mechanism behind psychogenic Retrograde amnesia T F

25. Photographic memory is recognized as being fairly common among young adults. T F

Chapter 7 items:

1. If you overheard someone reasoning like this, from the general to the specific: "All humans are warm blooded, I am a human, therefore I am warmblooded". What kind of reasoning is she using?

a. Deductive

b. Inductive

c. Analogical

d. Rational

2. Algorithms are ___________________________________

(this would have been in proximity to your directed reading for this chapter and was included in former exams, it can't hurt to learn!)

a) systematic problem-solving procedures that inevitably produce a solution (like a recipe or math formula)

b) mini-goals that aid in the attainment of the main goal in problem-solving

c) cognitive shortcuts or "rules of thumb"

d) processes by which individuals weigh the pros and cons of a given solution

3. Some parents choose not to vaccinate their children because of fear of a bad reaction. If this decision is based on the greater media exposure given to such rare reactions,(and not knowing the accepted findings regarding the autism link)and the lack of reporting for the numerous kids who die unnecessarily because they were not vaccinated, then the parents are falling prey to _____________________________________________. (this is not meant as criticism of personal choice but to illustrate the concept. SS)

a) inductive reasoning

b) the representativeness heuristic

c) the availability heuristic

d) bounded rationality

4. According to your text assigned reading on the Neuropsychology of Thinking (ch #7) the ___________________________________ plays a key role in using our emotional reactions to guide their decision making and behaviour.

a)the Hippocampus

b) the Cerebellum

c) the Ventromedial

d) Prefrontal Cortex

e) the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

5. Which of the following describes to the mindset where someone fails to "think outside the box" for a solution to a problem by being stuck on seeing the usual functions for objects?

a) divergent thinking

b) convergent thinking

c) parallel distributed processing

d) functional fixedness

e) both b and d

6. Analogical reasoning involves ______________________

a. a combination of inductive and deductive practices

b. the use of complex mathematical formulae to predict behaviour

c. the use of previous knowledge or problem solving, applied to a new situation/ problem that is similar in creative or abstract ways

d. the careful examination of every aspect of a complex problem and weighing every argument before coming to a conclusion

Chapter 8 items:

1. Critics of standard IQ tests assert that they provide little insight into an individual's

a) potential academic achievement

b) visual-spatial skills

c) mathematical abilities

d) practical intelligence

2. A researcher is using factor analysis to determine which subsets of IQ test scores are correlated with each other. Which approach to intelligence does this exemplify?

a) Gardener's "modular intelligences"

b) the Cognitive/Information Processing Approach

c) the Psychometric Approach

d) the Implicit Approach

3. The existence of SAVANTS and child prodigies support the notion of

a) the bell curve of IQ scores

b) crystallized intelligence

c) separate, modular intelligence systems

d) a single g-factor for intelligence

4. Which of the following is NOT TRUE regarding EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (EQ)?

a) it involves being aware of your own emotions and their triggers

b) it involves being aware of others' emotional states

c) it involves being able to deal effectively with your own and others' emotions

d) some researchers maintain that it predicts life success better than standard IQ tests

e) each of the above IS true of EQ

5. Which of the following is possible when using the The Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale? (the WAIS...the one I brought to class)

a) getting a score for Verbal IQ

b) getting a score for Performance IQ

c) getting a total IQ score

d) using discrepancies in performance on the various scales to help identify learning difficulties

e) a b and c are correct

f) all of the above are correct

6. CULTURE REDUCED TESTS (Like Raven's Progressive Matrices)

appear to tap ______ ______________skills, which are less like those tapped by full standardized IQ tests like the Weschler tests, contributing to their lower predictive value for school success.

a. Right Hemisphere

b. Visual Spatial

c. Left Hemisphere

d. practical, street smarts

e. a and b are correct

f. c and d are correct

7. Which of the following observations provides the best evidence that intelligence scores are influenced by the environment?

a. adopted children's IQ scores tend to be more similar to their biological than their adoptive parents' IQ scores

b. fraternal twins are more similar in their intelligence scores than are ordinary siblings

c. monozygotic twins reared separately are more similar in their intelligence test scores than are dizygotic twins reared together

d. the intelligence scores of children are positively correlated with the intelligence scores of their parents

8. Gardener (with his neuropsychological theory of multiple intelligences) would likely suggest that a person who is introspective and has great self-awareness is ___________________________________.

a. high in practical intelligence

b. high in intrapersonal intelligence

c. high in linguistic intelligence

d. high in interpersonal intelligence

e. not displaying "intelligent" behaviour at all

9. Research suggests that IQ scores have been rising over the last 70 years. Which of the following is ACCURATE according to these findings?

a. an increase in reading ability (verbal IQ) is responsible for most of the increase

b. an increase in complex mathematical reasoning after high school is responsible for most of the increase

c. an increase in visual spatial skills from the use of computers and gaming is responsible for most of the increase

d. a and b are correct

e. b and c are correct

f. all of the above are correct

g none of the above are correct (If you're previewing this one before the lecture, you'll just have to wait and see. J)

10. Which of the following statements about intelligence in the elderly is correct?

a. IQ scores tend to increase with age

b. fluid intelligence appears to decline, while crystallized intelligence appears to increase

c. crystallized intelligence appears to decline, while fluid intelligence appears to increase

d. both types of intelligence decline rapidly and markedly after age 60

11. Which of the following is a legitimate concern regarding Gardener's approach to intelligence?

a. what kinds of intelligence should be included?

b. possibility of having too many kinds intelligence that it becomes unwieldy and difficult to research

c. like most IQ tests there's too much emphasis on the verbal and math abilities

d. a and b are correct

e. all of the above are correct

12. What does "HERITABILITY QUOTION" refer to?

a) it refers to the proportion of your abilities/traits that are due to the genes you inherited from your parents

b) it refers to the proportion of variation (individual differences) in a trait within a given group of people that can be explained by genetic factors

c) it is a coefficient used to determine the genetic differences between different groups of people

d) it refers to traits that are genetic and in no way interact with the environment

13. The cognitive/information processing approach to intelligence is most interested in ____________________

a. how different aspects of intelligence correlate with each other

b. the use of sophisticated data analysis techniquest such as factor analysis

c. examinining the mental operations underlying intelligent behaviour

d. both a and b are correct

14. Remember the term "Heritability Quotion"? Well, how about applying it?

The trait in question is weight/obesity. The two hypothetical "groups" in this study are:

"Western Variety" and "Third world Poverty"

Of course this means that those in the first group have access to ALL manner of foods, cheap, fast, fattening, expensive, gourmet, vegan, vegetarian, healthy...a LOT of variety which is NOT the case in the second group.

For which of these two groups would we expect a LOWER HERITABILITY QUOTION for weight?

Third World Poverty

Western Variety

the HQ values would be the same for both groups

HQ cannot give such information as it refers to the % of a trait you inherited from your parents

15. Which of the following is TRUE of current IQ tests such as the Weschler scales?

a) studies have shown them to be highly reliable

b) they are valid when used to compare people of vastly different cultural backgrounds

c) studies have shown that they predict school and work achievement

d) both a) and c) are true

e) all of the above are true

16. The mathematical formula IQ = MA/CA X 100 is how IQ is calculated today. T F

17. If Sam scored 145 on an a standard IQ test she would be three standard Deviations above the mean, and well into the gifted category . T F

18. Recent research suggests that cognitive decline related to aging can be averted with diet, exercise and keeping one's brain active, learning, doing new things. T F

19. Competitors in games involving trivia or world knowledge are displaying their Fluid Intelligence T F

20. Genetic problems are at the base of the majority of cases Of those diagnosed as Cognitively Challenged (formerly Mental Retardation) T F

Chapter 8 scoring key: 1) d 2) c 3) c 4) e 5) f 6) a 7) b 8) b 9) g : note if you picked c, there is some proof that video games etc are increasing some visual spatial scores on the performance subtest, but the only significant gains were in "similarities" where our use of more abstract reasoning is more sophisticated.

Chapter 9 items: "Consciousness""

1. Without the aid of exposure to the true day night cycle (e.g. in isolation, no clocks, no daylight) we would adopt a daily rhythm that is

a) broken up by short naps

b) a little longer than 24 hours

c) a little shorter than 24 hours

d) irregular, leading to possible derangement

2. Which part of the brain appears to play a large role in distinguishing familiar and unfamiliar stimuli without having to access explicit LTM, and thus contributes to theories on the experience of Déjà vu? ____________

a) the amygdale

b. the hypothaolamaus

c. the parahippocamal gyrus

d. the prefrontal lobes

e. the cerebellum

3. Which of the following HAS NOT been found in research into the Altered State argument for HYPNOSIS?

a. distinct EEG patterns during hypnosis

b. hypnotised subjects are no more likely to follow through on post-hypnotic suggestions compared to those faking a trance

c. hypnotic suggestions can reduce activity in certain sensory areas of the brain, which is not seen in those just pretending

d. surgical procedures can be performed on hypnotised people with no anaesthetic

e. All of the above HAVE been cited in support of the Altered State

4. Rick has been studying for his psych exam for 5 hours. An observer would note that about every 90 minutes he gets up for a snack or starts chewing on his pen. This is an example of a/an __________________________ ;2

a) culturally determined hunger cycle

b) infradian rhythm

c) ultradian rhythm

d) circadian rhythm

5. Which of the following i an example of a process that runs on a Circadian Rhythm?

a. Sleep/Wake cycles

b. Hunger

c. Menstrual cycles in women

d. the different stages of sleep

e. all of the above are driven by a circadian rhythm

6. Research has indicated that when subjects are ordered to plunge their hands into acid or to throw acid into the experimenter's face, they will __________

a) refuse to do either, even when hypnotized

b) plunge their hands into acid, but will not throw it when hypnotized

c) do both, but only when hypnotized

d) do both, whether hypnotized or not

7. We learned some new information on Hypnosis thanks to the Discovery Channel this year. It seems that the 15% of people who are deemed Highly Hypnotizable Subjects (HHs) _______________________________.

a) have larger than normal Rostrums, a brain structure associated with focus, attention and the transfer of information across hemishpheres

b) tend to be folks who "get lost" in movies or books or who tends to use the creative side of their brain more

c) Can be made to endure with comfort what others would find extremely painful (Ice bath for 2 minutes)

d) may follow post hypnotic suggestions that violate their own moral will

e) a b and c are correct

f) all of the above are correct

8. Which of the following typically occur(s) during STAGE 2 sleep?

a) night terrors

b) learning enhancement of procedural memories

c) sleep walking

d) detailed, story-like dreams

e) learning enhancement for factual explicit memory

9. ______________ is the hormone relased by our ______________to help with the synchronization of the biological rhythms associated with the light/dark cycle? (this is an easy primer questin)

a) melatonin.....pineal gland

b) serotonin......pituitary gland

c) epinephrine.....adrenal glands

d) glutamate.....neo-cortex

e) dopamine..... limbic system

10. Researching the effects of various bodily rhythms on illnesses and medication timing would fall under the category/field of _______________________

a. alternative medicine

b. Chronobiology

c. Health Psychology

d. Target dosing

11. As Ashleigh recalled her dream, she was exploring new, undiscovered rooms in a magnificent three story house when she comes across a door that is locked. According to FREUD Ashleigh's account represents the _________ content of her dream. He would be more interested in what the various aspects symbolize, what the true hidden meaning is. This would be the _____________ content of the dream. (we're looking for Freud's terminology here, folks)

a) lucid ....manifest

b) wish-fulfilment....latent

c) latent.......manifest

d) manifest.....latent

e) symbolic....implicit

12. What happens to the periods of REM sleep during the night?

a) nothing of any significance

b) they drop off toward morning

c) they get longer toward morning

d) they re-occur about every 60 minutes

e) both c and d are correct

13. Which of the following occurs during STAGE 4 SLEEP?

a) release of growth hormone

b) deep muscle relaxation and regeneration

b) sleep-eating

c) night-terrors

d) predominance of alpha wave activity

e) all of the above occur during stage 4 sleep

f) all of the above except D occur during stage 4 sleep

14. Which of the following brain regions is relatively inactive when we Are having true story-like dreams?

a) parietal association areas

b) the Pons

c) the amygdala

d) visual association areas

e) the limbic system

f) each of the above IS active during dreaming

15. The belief that dreams are simply by-products of the brain's efforts to sort and sift through the day's information but are themselves essentially meaningless Belongs with the ______________________ theory of dreaming.

a. Gestalt

b. Problem-solving

c. Information Processing

d. Activation Synthesis

16. We discussed in class many experiments on students and sleep. In one, student's sleep was monitored during summer holidays, and again at exam time. What did they find?

a) a decrease in the intensity of REM sleep during holiday time

b) an increase the intensity of REM sleep during exam time

c) an increase in the duration of Stage 2 sleep during exam time

d) a decrease in the duration of Stage 4 sleep during holiday time

e) a and b are correct

f) c and d are correct

17. There is a rare condition in which the person appears to act out their dreams as they occur What is called?

a. sleep apnea

b. Deep Sleep Behaviour Disorder

c. Narcolepsy

d. REM sleep Behaviour Disorder

e. Alpha/Delta Intrusion Disorder

18. According to Gestalt dream interpretation ________________.

a. the focus is on how the symbols you yourself interpret relate to your every day life and concerns

b. the focus is on the unconscious meaning of particularly sexual or aggressive symbols

c. Looking at each person and object in a dream as a facet of your own personality can be helpful in interpreting some dreams

d. The therapist is the one who does the interpretation for the client

19. The newest research on the role of sleep and memory formation suggests that complex memories (such as the skills for the logic task) are consolidated during ________________________; while simple fact memorization (declarative/semantic memory) benefits most from ___________________________.

Stage 2 sleep.....Stages 3 & 4

REM sleep......Stages 3 & 4

Stage 2 sleep.....REM sleep

Stages 3&4 sleep....Stage 2 sleep

20. What might certain aspects of hypnosis have in common with LUCID DREAMING?

a) inability to remember what occurred

b) dissociation of different levels of consciousness/awareness

c) increased suggestibility to others' commands

d) the two have nothing at all in common

21. Which of the following is NOT one of the benefits of avoiding sleep deprivation or collecting "sleep debt"?

a) improved memory for newly learned material of all kinds

b) lowering your Body Mass Index (a rough measure of weight/hight)

c) improving your physical appearance

d) all of the above ARE benefits of avoiding sleep deprivation

22. Meditation reflects a nearly inactive brain state as shown in brain imaging T F

23. Deja vu may be caused by a timing glitch in the way our brain takes in visual information T F

 24. McCarley and Hobson's Activation Synthesis Theory of dreams holds that They are nothing more than our higher brain areas trying to make stories out of random firing of neurons in the brainstem. T F

25. Subjects woken from REM sleep perform poorer on word association tasks than do subjects woken from other stages of sleep, or when wide awake.
T F

Chapter 9 items "Drugs"

1. Let's start with a real easy one. Which of the following neurochemicals is associated with most forms of addiction?

a. Serotonin

b. Dopamine

c. Adrenaline

d. Glutamate

e. Gaba

2. . Which of the following is NOT classified as a DEPRESSANT?

a) alcohol

b) barbiturates

c) GHB

d) Ketamine

e) all of these ARE classified as depressants

3. Brenda has been smoking marijuana regularly at the same rate since she was a teenager. She has tried to stop, but habit keeps her going. She's gone on trips and not used, with few ill effects. But once back in her real, stressful life she craves the relaxation that smoking marijuana provides for her. She spends a lot of time, effort, money and restricts social activities to accommodate her use. According to actual diagnostics, which of the following is true for Brenda according to the information I've provided.

tolerance

withdrawal

physiological dependence

psychological dependence

a and b

c and d

all of the above

4. Which of the following is associated with the drug ECSTASY? "X"

a) a combination of stimulant and hallucinogenic effects

b) risk of severe fevers and seizures

c) risk of permanent heart damage or heart attack

d) risk of memory impairment

e) massive depletion of serotonin after the effects wear off

f) all of the above are associated with this drug

5. Alcohol is known to have a Biphasic Effect. The first target for alcohol in the brain is our __________ regions, resulting in ____________________.

a. the limbic system....heightened emotionality

b. the cerebellum.....slurring and staggering

c. frontal lobe anxiety areas.....increased sociability and lowered inhibitions

d. brainstem.....individual differences in tolerance to alcohol

6. What do Alcohol and anti-anxiety medications known as Benzodiazepines have in common?

a. They cause massive release of serotonin in the brain

b. They cause stimulation effects at first then sedation effects

c. They manipulate dopamine more than other drugs

d. they help GABA to attach to receptor sites, causing inhibition (a slowing down) in the brain

7. Which pair of drugs actually function the same way at the level of the neuron? They both mimic (and trigger the receptor sites for) chemicals our brains already make.

a. Salvia....Crystal Meth

b. marijuana....opioids

c. Cocaine....Alcohol

d. Ketamine....Ecstasy

e. LSD......Magic Mushrooms

8 . Ketamine (aka Special K) has become a popular street drug. Which of the following is NOT TRUE of this drug?

its legal use is as an anaesthetic for animal surgery

dissociative, out of body, spiritual, and near death experiences are often reported

it is heavily physiologically addictive

it can cause permanent damage to the urinary system if used chronically

e. input from somatic nerves to the Thalamus is inhibited

9. What are Endocannabinoids?

a. Our own internal pain killers or opioids

b. Our own internal version of THC

c. A by product of over-use of marijuana that causes memory deficits

d. Our own internal version of cocaine

10. Which of the following is TRUE regarding the use of Cocaine?

Smoking cocaine produces a lower risk for dependence than does snorting or inhaling

Cocaine and its derivatives can be lethal even for first time users

Psychotic symptoms and paranoia can be induced by high doses

d. Cocaine and its derivatives are now recognized as being highly physiologically as well as psychologically addictive

e. Everything except A is correct

11. Which of the following is trueregarding research into the effects of marijuana use?

there is abundant and consistent experimental evidence for passivity and "amotivational syndrome" with daily marijuana use

heavy users suffer long term memory deficits due to neural cell death

research has confirmed that marijuana is the gateway drug for harder drug use

a and b are correct

all of the above are correct

none of the above are correct

12. Which of the following is INCORRECT regarding what we know today about marijuana?

a. it has many recognized medical uses

b. a link between early marijuana use and risk triggering psychosis in those at risk has been estabilished

c. it has more carcinogens than tobacco

d. it has been proven to cause multiple types of cancer

e. it has proven very useful in the treatment of people suffering from PTSD

13. Which of the following is CORRECT regarding what we learned about Marijuana this year?

a) THC levels have increased dramatically since the 1960's & 1970's

b) Canadibol levels have increased dramatically since the ‘60's & ‘70's

c) Opioid levels in Marijuana are increasing yearly

d) deaths from overdose are becoming a concern

d) a) and b) are correct

e) all of the above are correct

14. We learned a little bit about the interest in psychedelic healing this year in class. What's the deal?

a. it's following up on legal research done in the middle to latter half of the last century

b. certain psychedelic/hallucinogenic drugs appear to benefit those with depression

c. certain psychedelic/hallucinogenic drugs appear to benefit those with addictions to other drugs

d. certain psychedelic/hallucinogenic drugs appear to enhance certain kinds of psychotherapy

e. all of it!

15. Cocaine blocks the reuptake of Dopamine in the pleasure centres of the brain, thus making more of it available in the synapse. So does Crystal Meth. What other action does crystal meth cause that makes it even more concerning?

a. it blocks serotonin receptors

b. it invades presynaptic neurons and forces extra dopamine to be released

c. it blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine as well, leading to potentially lethal side effects

d. it invades glutamate neurons adding a burst of glutamate to the mix

16. Which of the following drugs is NOT known to cause actual loss or shrinkage of brain tissue or synapses? (we did see some brain scans in class)

a. alcohol

b. Heroin

c. Ecstasy

d. marijuana

e. Crystal meth

f. each of the above causes neural loss

17. Which of the following is TRUE regarding the manufacture of Crystal Meth?

a . ephedrine or pseudo-ephedrine from cold medications are key ingredients

b . red phosphorus, paint thinner, ammonia or lithium from batteries may be used

c. the ingredients are inexpensive and it can be prepared on large or small scales

d. a and b are correct

e. all of the above are correct

18. Abnormally low levels of endocannabinoids are believed to be associated with ______.

a) higher risk of developing PTSD, and phobias

b) better cognitive function, indicating drug effects are wearing off

c) better physiological functioning

d) better emotional functioning

e) b c and d are correct

19. What is accurate regarding the "Designer Drugs" or "Legal Highs" discussed this year?

a. "legal" substitutes for marijuana, ecstasy, cocaine, etc. Are available

b. they contain dangerous, uncontrolled ingredients labelled "not for human consumption"

c. If banned, one simple molecule change puts the drug back on the market

d. some, including the marijuana substitutes, cause more harm than the real drug itself, including death

e. all of the above are correct.

TRUE/FALSE SECTION

20) Regular use of drugs that induce dopamine can result in "upegulation" (more of) our own internal production of it. T F

21. Regular marijuana use may lower testosterone levels T F

22. Developing TOLERANCE for a psychoactive substance means that you need more and more of it to achieve the

desired effect. T F

23. Cigarettes are considered easier to get hooked on and harder to get off of than heroine or alcohol. T F

24. Women are more susceptible to the intoxicating effects of alcohol Only because, on average, they are smaller than men. T F

24. The withdrawal symptoms from all classes of drugs are very Similar T F

26. Detox from opioids such as oxycontins and heroin can now be Achieved rapidly while one is under general anaesthesia. T F

Reference no: EM131384145

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