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Area of solar pv energy conversion
Course:- Electrical Engineering
Reference No.:- EM13885785




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Question:

Prepare a "Technical Report & also a Presentation Paper".

Two Tasks Required to

Q1: 1)-Write a Technical Report of (5-8 pages), based on IEEE paper format.

2)-For the same paper, make a Presentation File of 5-10 Slides (based on the main Technical Report

Q2: 1)-Write a Technical Report of (5-8 pages), based on IEEE paper format(file attached).

2)-For the same paper, make a Presentation File of 5-10 Slides (based on the main Technical Report.

Project - Wiring Standards for Photovoltaic (PV) Installations (USA Standards ONLY)

The project will have an extensive review of current USA standards for dc and ac wiring of PV systems.

These standards usually involve requirements for wire or cable sizing, protection devices, anti-islanding, and others. Standards in USA for both residential and large-scale (solar farms) PV systems should be addressed.

Description and Deliverables

The project is intended to deepen your understanding in a specific area of solar PV energy conversion, and as a research training process.

Graduate students are expected to perform a project that is more simulation and experiment oriented than undergraduates who are expected to perform a simpler literature review or basic comparison type of project. Undergraduates are welcome to choose a more challenging project topic if they are interested.

You are welcome to propose project ideas outside the list given here, but these will need the instructor consent. All projects are individual.

The quality of the final project for graduate students should be that of a draft IEEE conference paper (Check IEEE Xplore for samples). Students are welcome to have separate discussions from office hours to pursue further research in their project topic.

Answered:-

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Photovoltaic (PV) power systems used to produce hazardous voltages and currents for decades. To ensure the safety of the public for these extended periods of time, PV systems must be properly designed and installed using the highest standards of workmanship. This paper addresses the requirements for PV system grounding contained in the U.S. National Electrical Code® (NEC®) published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). The NEC and the NEC Handbook are copyrighted by NFPA and the term NFPA-70 is a trademark owned by the NFPA (NFPA, 2011). It does not address in any detail the various American or European standards that are used to design and produce electrical instrument, nor does it cover the many electrical codes used in other countries.

Index Terms— Type, USA standards, wire or cable sizing, protection devices. A photovoltaic system, a power source is used to supply useable solar power.it consists of solar panels, solar inverter, mounting, cable, solar tracking system, an integrated battery solution and other electrical accessories to set-up a working system. It has no moving parts thus no specific thermal stresses are involved and it operates quietly. Thus it can offers extremely high reliability, low maintenance requirements and a long lifetime. PV system may come in the form of rooftop mounted, building integrated or grid connected

Fig: Photovoltaic power systems and components. Rooftop system in Boston, United States.
Fig: General photovoltaic system.
Fig: photovoltaic generator

During cloudy and dark periods a battery or a back-up generator is used as storage.
A number of solar modules are electrically interconnected in series and in parallel to satisfy a specific power demand by a PV system. The solar cell is the smallest independent operational unit of any PV system. It consists of a specific silicon diode having large aperture area for light absorption.

In USA PV systems follows some codes and standards like Electrical codes-National Electrical Code Article 690, Solar Photovoltaic Systems, NFPA 70 Uniform Solar Energy Code.
•Building Codes- ICC, ASCE 7
•UL Standard 1701; Flat Plat Photovoltaic Modules and Panels.
•IEEE 1547, Standards for Interconnecting distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems
•UL Standard 1741, Standard for Inverter, converters, Controllers and Interconnection System Instrument for use with Distributed Energy Resources
•IEC 61730-1 and IEC 61730-2 for safety in construction and
•IEC61215 and IEC61646 (design qualification and type approval).




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