Study of Product Development using Lean and Green Concepts:
Lean Product Development
Khan et al. (2013)have used lean principles in product and process development (PPD). Interviews were conducted amongst industries and documentation was done to check the implementation of lean PD enablers. The enablers were classified into formal and informal categories. Further implementation of each enabler was not done.Walton (2009) conducted this study at Massachusetts Institute of Technology to spread the awareness of LPD. The impacts of the organization on PD and factors which externally affect the organization are also considered. The tools such as SBCE (Set Based Concurrent Engineering) and metrics in Product Development are defined. Various risks associated for implementation were classified.Liu et al. (2011) used a Fuzzy QFDProduct design and selection (PDS). They considered correlation among Engineering Characteristics. The prototypes are generated incorporating Engineering characteristics. To pick the best prototype a Fuzzy-MCDM tool was utilized.Oppenheim (2004) applied 'system engineering' for product quality. The author stressed on cost reduction during product development by eliminating the wastes.
The Lean Product Development Flow (LPDF) was suggested which is a value pulling work flow.Pullan et al.(2011)suggested the importance of lean and concurrent engineering for current industries. They suggested the use of these principles in product development. They also integrated the product process platform for ease of information flow. They explained the integration of cost and time estimates into manufacturing model. A Knowledge based decision support system was prepared using Oracle 9i. Gautam et al.(2008) suggested the use of Redesign to improve the perceived value. Necessary features to reengineer were recognized and classified based on the associated cost. After which an incremental product development was suggested based on the optimized values of recognized constrains.McIvor(2001) suggested the integration of supplier and customer into the New Product Development process which would help to enhance information flow. They mentioned that an organized supply chain (lean supply model) would result in cost reduction as well as satisfaction among the supplier and the customer.
Green Product Development
Moreira et.al.conducted the case study in textile industry to check with the industries environmental impacts, here in product development was considered the prime importance. A sustainable product design, Eco design were considered the best suitable alternatives to reduce the environmental impact, with this they were able to check the carbon footprint through which enhancing the social responsibility.
Chou et. Al (2015) approach was to access the sustainable product services and to interpret the same. Customer satisfaction, full sustainability concerns are considered along with the life cycle assessment. Product service value and sustainability impact were also assessed.
Yan et al. (2009) suggested the need for integration of functional, marketing and commercial aspects into the product development process. The product platform was developed by the designers and domain experts using the tools design knowledge hierarchy (DKH), sustainable product conceptualization system and acquisition techniques etc. Cost criteria along with grid coordination were used finally to select the effective design.
Heintz et al. (2014) develop a computer aided product design tool(CAPD) for product design. The selection evaluation and processing is done by the use of genetic algorithm.
Chen et al. (2014) conducted a study on design of products considering sustainable aspects. They suggest that the products should be designed in such a way that it should facilitate for end of life (EOL). Certain parts involving polymers were difficult to dismantle and to separate, hence pyrolysis chemical treatment is used to do so.
VSM application for Lean Product Development
Fritzell et al.(2012) presented a case study to explain the use of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) in an industry which was happened to be inconsistent with that of literature. This VSM was used to improve product development process. They used concept maps and DSM for better understanding of process.Kumar et al.(2009) used a two stage VSM called VSM-ADSP(Advanced Dual Stage Performance) for new product development. Feedback loops were used to assess the project. In the second stage of ADSP, the best project was selected among various possible projects.Zhai et al.(2009)used numerical values in linguistic data provided by the customers. A Rough Set based QFD was used to convert the customer requirements into the product characteristics and for further decision making. The results obtained from this study were more accurate and precise unlike the traditional QFD.Smith(2012)extended the study to custom development of product(high-volume low-mix).
To achieve this, the common activities for design and development were identified and standardized Kaizen bursts were used to eliminate the wastes identified during the development process and the whole process was mapped using the lean tool VSM. BOM(bill of materials), Metrics, AutoCAD, Check sheets were used to understand the process. FPR (Field Problem Report) was prepared to check problem location and effective measures were taken to reduce the cost of Quality.Haque(2010)implemented the lean principles into Concept Generation, Detailed design till the Customer delivery. CE and SBCE were used and New Product Introduction (NPI) process was classified into three groups' i.e. Key characteristics, Detailed characteristics, Enablers and Enabling tools, also the wastes were classified in NPI mapped using VSM.McIvor(2001) suggested the integration of supplier and customer into New Product Development process which would help to enhance the information flow. An organized supply chain (lean supply model) would result in cost reduction as well satisfaction among supplier and customer.Schulze et al.(2011)explained the knowledge transfer about product development in an organization using 4Is which were Intuiting, Interpreting, Integrating, and Institutionalizing. They incorporated a lean tool VSM to facilitate NPD New Product Development (NPD). This study enabled Organization Learning (OL) and enhanced the managerial decision making process.
QFD applications for Lean Product Development
Liu et al. (2011) conducted a study on Product Development. For ease of Product Design, they utilized Fuzzy QFD. The prototypes are generated by the incorporation of engineering characteristics obtained from fuzzy QFD. Sakao(2007) explained the need for environmentally conscious products. The author utilizedtools such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). QFD is renamed as Quality Function Deployment for Environment (QFDE), with the addition of environmental aspects into the earlier one. Zhai et al. (2008) proposed a rough set theory and its use along with QFD. This Rough set QFD was used in product design to transfer customer needs to design characteristics and it was done on the case product with more imprecise and indefinite values input. Smith (2012) explained the need for development of custom products in industry. This was further elaborated by the use of lean techniques. VSM and kaizens were used to improvise the process. Chen et al. (2009) explained the need for QFD in product development. Since this development process possessed vagueness, fuzzy logic was used to reduce it. Further, Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) was used to identify the defect location for new product development. Kreng et al. (2004) explained the modular product design which includes physical and functional features of a product. QFD was deployed to enhance modular product design and hence to achieve enhanced product characteristics.