Geography is the study of the physical features of the earth including how humans affect the Earth and are affected by it. Hence geography is a vast subject covering numerous aspects like composition of earth, how man affect the environment and others substantially. Therefore it's better to split it into key themes .

There are Five main themes of Geography which are Location, place, human- environment interaction, movement and region. These themes helps us understand how people and places are connected in our world. Geographers use these themes to help them study the world and organise ideas.
Here are the Five themes of Geography:-


It's kind of the first step in understanding the aspect of the earth and providing a reference to describe where a particular place is on the earth. Location of a place is defined according to the latitude and longitude and also defined by the relative area . There are two types of locations:

Absolute location:- It is where a location is based on a definitive reference such as latitude or longitude, or an address . Example- Vancouver is on the west coast of British Columbia.

Relative location:- It is where a place is described relative to it's environment or it's connection to other places.
Example- Vancouver is located on the Burrard peninsula.


Place is the human and physical characteristics that make a place unique like climate, landforms, vegetation as physical traits and culture, customs, traditions, language, clothing, religion etc as human traits. All these distinguishes one place from another.

For example there is a well known place called Antarctica and South Pole. What are some of the characteristics which distinguishes this place from other cold places? These are the types of questions this theme of Geography deals with.


People are always on the move but this theme of Geography is not just about people moving from one place to another by cars and airplanes. Movement also deals with how and why people travel from one place to another. Some people travel for meeting relatives, some travel for career , some are ousted from an area, some move to escape war and religious prosecution and many. It is a process of economic, technological, political and cultural combining and creating a single global society. Basically it's an exchange of people, goods and ideas from place to place .

For example- in a fraser canyon war also known as the Fraser river war many people were forced to move from one area to another.


It tells about the Human interaction with the environment. How people adapt to a certain environment? How do the people change the environment? Geographers study the way humans interact positively and negatively with their environments. They also study the lasting effects these interactions may have on a place.

Example- damming a river polluting a river, building highways or railroads and even watering lawns and gardens. Human behaviour such as planting trees is considered as positive interaction while polluting the air would be considered as negative interaction with the environment.


These are group of places that have human and physical characteristics in common. Also it is a unit on the earth's surface that has unifying characteristics such as climate or industry. These characteristics may be human, physical, or cultural. Not only do geographers study characteristics, but they also study how regions around the world may change over time.
Different types of physical regions are deserts, mountains, grasslands, and rain forests. In a city or town, there may be commercial or business regions and then residential regions.

Different types of regions are:

Formal regions- These are based on official boundaries like cities and provinces. Example- Port Coquitlam , British Columbia, Canada.

Functional regions- These are based on connections created by an activity such as communication. Example- The area that the Tri City Newspaper is distributed in.

Perceptual region- These are determined by people's attitudes and feelings. Example - The boundaries on a open field that has no markings.


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