Finding the Champion through Genes
In sports, the hard work beats the talent if talent doesn't hard work. Every Sports Training will aims for the achievement of top class performance in a best possible way of using specific methods and procedures. Sports Training is critical for success, but training is one component of the equation leading to the status of elite athlete. Along with the component of training there must require some other elements like physiological, psychological and dietary factors lead to the status of elite athlete. Scientific evidence suggests that athletic ability is dependent on both genetics and environmental factors. The past Olympics results indicates that the long distance running been dominated by the athletes of East African descent, sprinting dominated by those with west Caucasians. Their success is determined both by the fact that they have correct genetic variation to make them excel at a particular sport combined with training, scientific and environmental conditions are moulding them into record breakers.
The sports gene give rise to certain physical characteristics which, when combined with systematic training and a healthy life style, give certain players advantage over others. Studies speaks sprinters have starkly contrasting physical structures compared to weight lifters. According to an article entitled "Genetics role in Athletic performance" sprinters usually have long legs, narrow hips and small upper bodies while weightlifters are usually short, have stumpy limbs, a heavy upper body, higher body fat and a predisposition to flat feet.
Genetic have a large influence over Strength, Endurance, Speed, Muscle Size and Muscle fibre composition ( Fast and Slow Twitch), Anaerobic Threshold(AT),Lung Capacity and Flexibility. Genetics will determine the heart's ability to deliver enough oxygen to the working skeletal muscles for endurance athletes. Genetically gifted athletes will have a much greater response to training and will have large increase in the number of mitochondria in cells. The two of most widely studied genes regarding athletic performance are the angiotensin converting enzyme gene (ACE) and ACTN3. Everyone has two copies of the ACE and ACTN3 genes, one from each parent. The ACE gene has two variations that are found within human DNA, as Deletion (D) version and Insertion (I) version. So, depending on which version of the gene received from each parent the resultant combination will be one of II,ID and DD. The ACTN3 gene will found in two variations within human, a 577R-which appears to confer improved sprinting ability, and 577X-which seems to correlate to improved endurance capacity.
The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing literature on genes and sports performance with particular consideration for using of gene testing for talent identification in young athletes.
The gene profiling aims to reveal the athlete potential. The gene testing is a procedure of predisposition of athlete success in team or individual sports and speed or power or endurance sports through collection of saliva sample.
- It provides the early information on the athlete's genes success in a respective sports or event.
- Reveals how genes contribute to athletic traits.
- It helps to lose fat, get lean, build muscle mass and get fitter.
- Prediction of strength and nature of event that suits for a particular athlete.
- Worthy use of young energies to reach the status of elite athlete.
- Information helps coaches in design specific training plan.
The limit of each individual to perform a given type of exercise depends on the nature task and is influenced by a variety of factors, including psychology, environment and genetics make up. Genes provide useful insights, as sports performance can be ultimately defined as a polygenetic trait.
An enormous amount of research work is needed before we can predict the effects of an individual's genes characteristics on his or her ability to the trained and to reach elite athlete status in a particular sport.
The method of talent identification along with gene testing will predict right athlete for right sports that enables to utilize the young sports energies in a worthy way. Through this way of genes study helps in finding champion through genes.