Intelligence is the capability to learn and solve problems. In particular the ability to act like HUMANS. Artificial intelligence is a branch of science and technology based on disciplines such as
- Computer Science - Building fast computers.
- Linguistics - Grammar and knowledge representation.
- Mathematics - Formal representation and proof, algorithms computation, (un)decidability, (in)tractability
- Biology - To predict and diagnose diseases.
- Psychology - how do people behave, perceive, process cognitive information, represent knowledge.
- Engineering- To solve whole range of the hitherto interactive problems.
A major thrust of Artificial Intelligence is in the development of computer functions associated with human intelligence, such as
- Learning and
- Problem solving.
Artificial Intelligence is an intelligent agent. Intelligent agent gets to interact with an environment. The agent can perceive the state of environment through its sensors and can affect the state of the environment through its actuators. The big question in Artificial intelligence is the function that maps the sensors to the actuators called the control policy of the intelligent agent. The Intelligent agent will sense the environment through sensors thus take decisions and show the effects through its actuators on the environment and again feedback is taken from the sensors. This goes on in a cyclic process like a loop called as Perception action cycle.
History of Artificial intelligence
History of Artificial intelligence began myths, rumours and stories that artificial beings are present with intelligence or consciousness. Ancient classical philosopher described the human thinking as the mechanical manipulation of symbols. This led to the development of programmable digital computer in 1940s. This inspired scientists to build artificial electronic brain. Thus billions were funded to develop Artificial intelligence but as there were no effective results they withdrew their funding but later in 1980s again Japanese started investing but despite of effective results it also stopped funding. Investment and interest in artificial intelligence once again boomed in early 21th century as machine learning is solved many problems in academia and industry.
Goals of Artificial Intelligence
The major goals of artificial intelligence are
- Knowledge Reasoning : It is used to represent information about the world that a computer system can be utilized to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition and giving the output understandable to humans.
- Planning : It is concerned with the realization of strategies typically for execution by the intelligent agents, autonomous robots and unmanned vehicles. It is also related to decision theory
- Machine Learning : It is the subset of computer science that gives ability to the computers learn without programming them explicitly. In the field ofdata analytics, machine learning is a method used to devise complex algorithms and models that lend themselves to prediction; known as predictive analysis.
- Natural Language Processing : It is concerned with human-computer interaction. It can humans to interact the computer in natural language and computer understands and gives output to the human input. NLP also involves in natural language generation.
- Computer Vision: It is a interdisciplinary field that deals with how computers can gain high level understanding from videos and digital images.
- Robotics: Robotics has a wide scope in the field of artificial intelligence. If machine learning is applied to the robots then robots will be intelligent enough to take own decisions.
- Artificial General Intelligence: It is the intelligence of a machine that can successfully perform intellectual task that a human being can perform. Artificial General Intelligence can also be referred as the ability of the machine to perform general intelligent action.
In the course of research Artificial Intelligence has developed many number of tools to solve the difficult problems in Computer science. Few of them are
- Search and Optimization: Using artificial intelligence many problems can be solved by searching many possible options. To perform search Reasoning can be used. For example logical proof can be viewed through searching for the path that leads from premises to conclusions. Many Robotic arms use search algorithms based on optimization.
- Probabilistic methods for uncertain reasoning: There are many problems which does not have complete set of information. Artificial Intelligence developed many powerful tools to solve these problems from probability theory and economics for example Bayesian networks.
- Neural Networks: The study of artificial neural networks began decades before Artificial intelligence shown its mark. Hierarchical temporal memory is one of the approach that models some of the structural and algorithmic properties of neocortex.
- Deep feedforward neural networks: Deep learning in neural networks with many layers has transformed most of the important subfields of artificial intelligence including computer vision, NLP and Speech Recognition. Both machine learning algorithms and computer hardware helped to train Deep neural networks in more efficient way.
- Control Theory: It is the grand child of cybernetics which has many application in the field of Robotics.
- Languages: Artificial Intelligence researchers have developed many languages for research such as Prolog and Lisp
- Evaluation process: Turing test is used for the evaluate the intelligence of the agent. The test allows all most all possibilities of problems that agent will encounter but however it is very difficult challenge that no agent at present can pass the test.
Advantages of Artificial Intelligence
- In exploring sea, mines and space etc will not be difficult as humans are replaced by the Robots which are programmed intelligently.
- In our regular tasks we artificial intelligence is used to for automated reasoning, learning and perception.
- Some advanced organisations use avatars which replaces the digital assistants to interact with the clients.
- Machines can think faster than humans and can be used for multitasking and repetitive jobs
- Now a days doctors access the patients and their health risk with the help of artificial intelligence
Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence
- As Artificial intelligence is very complex it is very difficult to invest huge amounts in manufacturing machines.
- We find no improvement with the experience.
- They lack of creativity and imagination.
- Unemployment increases.