Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia, Animals Classification

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CLASS-AMPHIBIA General characters-

1. Cold blooded animals.

2. Skin: Smooth or rough glandular kept moist by the glandular secretion-

3. Scales are hidden in the skin if present.

4. Skull: Two occipital condyles.

5. Vertebrae Acentrous notocentrous and pseudocentrous.

6. Limbs Tetrapodus and pentadactyl us.

7. RBC Biconvex oval and nucleated

8. Heart: Three chambered-one ventricle and two auricles with sinus venosus symmetrical aortic arches.

9. Gills: Present at least during early stages of development.

10. Excretory organs: Mesonephric kidneys.

11. Lateral line system: Present during some stages of development.

12. Cranial nerves: 10 pairs.

13. Development: Generally with aquatic larval forms.

The amphibians are primarily aquatic because they lay eggs in water and early development of life takes place in aquatic medium and secondarily they are terrestrial.

CLASS-AMPHIBIA Classification-

Order 1-Labyrinthodontia (extinct) e.g. eryops.

Order 2-Phyllospondyli (extinct).

Order 3-Lepospondyli (extinct).

Order 4-Gymnophiona or Apoda or Caecilia (living) e.g. ichthyophis

(caecilian). uraeothyphlus.

Order 5-Condata or Urodela (living) e.g. amblystoma. salarnandra (salamander). Triton proteus (blind salamander). necturus (mud puppy). siren (mud eel)

Ordre &-Anura or Salientia (living) e.g. alytes (midwife toad). pipa (Surinam toad) bufo (Toad). hyla (Tree frog). Rana tigrina (common frog). rhacophorus (flying frog).


CLASS-REPTILIA General characters-

1. Cold blooded, terrestrial and aquatic.

2. Body covering: With horny scales or scutes.

3. Skin: Dry; devoid of glands.

4. Limbs: Tetrapodus and pentadactyl us.

5. Skull: Single occipital condyle.

6. Vertebrae: Gastrocentrous type ribs form a true sternum.

7. Respiration: By lungs.

8. Heart: Two auricles and incomplete divided ventricle.

9. Right and left aortic arches are complete.

10. RBC: Nucleated.

11. Excretory organs: Each metanephric kidney is provided with a separate ureter.

12. Cranial nerves: 12 pairs.

13. Fertilization Internal; development on land.

14. Cloaca: Typical.

CLASS-REPTILIA Classification-

Sub-class 1-Anapsida e.g. seymouria chelone (marine turtle or green turtle), trionyx (soft shelled fresh, Hater terrapin). testudo (land tortoise).

Sub-class 2-Parapsida e.g. ichthyosaurus.

Sub-class 3- Diapsida e.g. sphenddon (tuatara). hemidactylus (common, wall lizard or Gecko). calotes 'blood sucker or garden lizard), chameleon (garden coloured lizard). draco (flying lizard or dragon). phrynosoma (horned lizard or horned toad). varanus (monitor lizard). heloderma (poisonous lizard or Gila monster), typhlops (blind snakes), python, eryx johni (sand boa). ptyas (rat snake), tropidonotus (grass snake). bungarus (krait), naja naja (cobra), naja hannah (king cobra). hydrophis (sea snake), viper, natrix, Crocodylus palustris (muggar), alligator, Gavialis gangeticus (gharial).

Sub-class 4-Synapsida e.g. cynognathus.


CLASS-AVES General characters-

1. Warm blooded.

2. Exoskeleton of feather.

3. Limbs: Forelimbs modified into wings provided with feathers for flight. Hindlimbs adopted for walking or swimming and pearching.

4. Skin: Only oil glands on tail.

5. Skeleton: Spongy and light weight containing air.

6. Skull: Monocondylic. .

7. Break: Horny without teeth in living birds.

8. Vertebrae: Heterocoelus but may be amphicoelus or procoelus. Cervical and thoracic (some) free, posterior thoracic lumbar and sacral fused certain fused caudals form the pygostyle.

9. Ribs: Double headed with uncinate process.

10. Sternum: Usually with keel for the attachment of flight muscles.

11. Garpo-meta carpus: Distal carpals and metacarpals.

12. Tibiotarsus: Fusion of proximal tarsal and tibia tarsometatarsus - fusion of metatarsals with distal tarsals.

13. Digestive system: Crop (a storage organ) is formed by the gullet. Stomach divided into proventriculus (glandular) and gizzard (muscular). Cloaca true with three chambers.

14. Respiratory organs: Spongy and non-distensible lungs. Air sacs present and communicate with the air cavities in the bones.

15. Sound production: By a swollen part syrinx.

16. Heart: Four chambered, double circulatory. Only right aortic arches are present.

17. RBG: Oval and nucleated.

18. Excretory organs: Metanephric; three lobed excretory duct, the ureters open directly into cloaca.

19. Brain: Cerebellum most developed.

20. Sex: Separate.

21. Reproductive organs: Only left ovary is present.

22. Fertilization: Internal.

23. Eggs: Large with yolk (megaleCithal).

CLASS-AVES Classification-

Sub-class 1-Archaeornithes or Palaeornithes (extinct) e.g. archaeopteryx and archaeornis.

Sub-class 2-Neornithes (living and extinct birds) e.g. hesperornis (extinct), Struthio camelus (ostrich), apteryx (kiwi). Tadorna tadorna (common shell duck), Cygnus olor (mute swan), Gyps fulvus Griffon vulture), Haliastur indus rahminy kite), Aquila chrysaetos (golden eagle), Accipiter nisus (Eurasian sparrow hawk), Falco peregrinus peregrine falcon), Pavo cristatus (peacock), Columba livia (common pigeon), Psittacula krameri (green parrot), Bubo bubo (herred owl), Calypte and (humming bird-smallest bird), Apus melba (alpine swift), Passer domesticus (common house sparrow), Eudynamis scolopaceous (koel), Alcido atthis (kingfisher), Corvus splendens (common house crow), Orthotomus sutorius (tailor bird), Ploceus philippi nus (weaver bird or baya).


General charavters-

1. Warm blooded.

2. Skin: Covered with hairs with sudorific (sweat) glands and sebaceous (oil) glands.

3. Mammary glands: Present.

4. Teeth: Heterodont, thecodont, diphydont.

5. Skull: Dicondylic.

6. Lower jaw: of dentary.

7. Vertebrae: Amphiplatyan, seven cervical vertebrae.

8. Ribs: Double headed.

9. Limbs: Either plantigrade or digitigrade or unguligrade.

10. Muscular diaphragm: Separates the thoracic cavity with abdominal cavity.

11. Heart: Four chambered, double circulatory. Only left aortic arch is present.

12. RBC: Biconcave, non-nucleated.

13. Ear: External (pinna), middle and internal ear.

14. Brain: Four optic lobes (corpora guadrigemina).

15. Excretory organs: Metanephric type.

16. Viviparous: Generally oviparous in monotremata.

CLASS-MAMMALIA Classification-

Sub-class 1-Prototheria (primitive, egg laying mammals) e.g. echidna (spiny ant-eater), ornithorhynchus.

Sub-Class 2- Theria e.g. Macropus major (Australian kangaroo), Erinaceous (hedgehog), Talapa (mole), Pteropus (flying fox), Lemur,Loris, Ateles (spider monkey), Ape, Homo sapiens (man), Pan (chimpanzee), Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbit), Lepus (hare), Manis crassinadata (Indian pangolin), Funambulus (squirrel), Rattus rattus (house rat), Balaenoptera musculus (Blue whale), Delphinus delphis (common dolphins), Panthera leo persica (asiaticlion), Panthera tigris (tiger), Canis familiaris (dog), Canis lupas (wolf), Canis aureus (jackal), Vulpes benghalensis (Indian fox), Acinonyx jubetus (cheetah), Felis domesticus (domestic cat), Herpestes (mongoose), phoca (seal), Panthera pandus (leopard), Elephas maximus (asiatic elephant), Equus cabal us (horse), Equus zebra (zebra), Hippopotamus (horse of silver), Sus (pig), Camel us (camel), Bos indicus (cow), Bubalus bubalis (buffalo), Capra (goat), Ovis (sheep), Giraffe, Cervus (deer), Antelope etc.

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