Grid management, as the term implies, is managing the grid. This consists of on-line real-time operation of the grid as well as off-line operational planning. The real time operation of the grid is looked after through the Load Dispatch Centre that is basically a round-the-clock control room manned through grid operators or load dispatchers, who operate the grid through giving instructions to the personnel of the concerned substations and generators.
Figure: Two Key Players in Grid Management
Load Dispatching, as the name denotes, includes dispatching of load (or power) from the generator to the load. This is completed by the transmission system. Load Dispatch Centre constantly observes the grid parameters and tries to ensure good grid operation.
Operational planning is the planning completed in advance, in order to ensure that
1 generation matches the load at all points of time;
2 the voltage profile at all points of the grid remains inside acceptable limits;
3 none of the transmission lines or inter-connecting transformers get over-loaded; and
4 the grid operates in a stable manner, that is., there are no power swings.
Operational Planning also includes coordination of protection of the grid so in which only the faulted element gets isolated and the remaining grid continues to operate within a satisfactory manner.
The Grid Management in our country is completed through the Regional Load Dispatch Centre (RLDC) at the Regional Level and through the State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) at the State Level. Each State, Central Generating Stations and Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are treated as constituents of the Region.