Axis Perpendicular to the Vertical Plane:
For sketching orthographic projections of various solid as like prisms, cylinders and pyramids, cones, common procedure is follows as:
First sketch the elevation whether base represent the true shape considering guidelines like per Section illustrated.
Numbers the some corners of the base for prisms and pyramids and for cone and cylinder divide the base circle in even number of parts as like8, 12 or 16 and mark the points on circumference of the circle as like a′ b′ c′ d′ or 1′ 2′ 3′ 4′ and so on.
Sketch the plan along with the using of known length of axis and projecting some points from elevation of the solid as like Mark a, b, c, d or 1, 2, 3, 4, ... and so on.
Projection of a cylinder, a cone, a hexagonal prism and a pentagonal pyramid are drawn like per above process.