People-oriented supervisory style:
Effective managers, in their effort to influence subordinates and get work done, express their strong power requires in democratic, people-oriented ways. Research on power in organisations indicates that the managers who were strong in power require were also rated strong on the people-oriented supervisory style by their own subordinates.
- Motivation is described as a "process governing choices, made through persons or lower organisms, between alternatives forms of voluntary activity". As such motivation is concerned along with (1) the direction of behaviour, or what a person selected to do while presented with a number of possible alterna tives, (2) the amplitude, or strength of the effect once the selection is made and (3) the persistence of the behaviour, or how long the person continues with it. Choices behaviour refers to decisions directed toward occupational preference, choices, job attendance, organisation choices, self- training, creativity, and spontaneity and job termination.
- Almost all workers are motivated to have a high level of self-esteem within the work situation. Frequent while a person is not in a work situation providing high self- esteem, the person will be "fighting back" - actively or passively such as a slave - with all sorts of sly country measures. People do not want to be pushed around, misunderstood, unappreciated, mistreated, controlled or laughed at. All these things cause low self-esteem. The individual does not need to expect success to be active, to be respected to exercise self-control and to be self-starting.
- Factors inside the job (intrinsic factors) are commonly effective motivators and could help awaken the urge to accomplish and to be self-starting. Such factors involve feelings of achievement, recognition and responsibility among others. These feelings sometimes "surprise" workers and in so doing inspire and encourage high motivation
- Jobs not giving for intrinsic motivation are low in "cultivation" or stimulation. A few form of job redesign is suggested for this type of job.
- High task performance results while (1) employees are able to use their valued abilities & skills in becoming task competent, (2) employees perceive valued and equitable rewards to be connected to task performance, and (3) employees acknowledge a differential reward system based on performance inside the organisation.
- The power motive is significant to effective managers. This requirement is not for dictatorial power or crude impulsive power but rather socialized power and the power to influence people for the sake of the organisation. Although some balance of motives is commonly present inside most individuals a high required for power seem to be critical to a person's ability to function as a manager.
- Motivation is a complex problem within organisation since the requirement, needs, and desires of every worker differ as each individual is unique in his/ her biological and psychological makeup and in his/her learning experiences. Motivation is either internal or external, depending on whereas the action is initiated.
- External motivation builds on internal motivation and depends on the motivational assumptions and techniques used by the manager.