Collection of Independent Databases
An independent database was created for every application, for example: for engineering calculations, accounting, sales and so on. The different files generally have their own method of data organization and extremely little consideration is specified to a common database interface, maintenance, data formats. The several problems encountered along with this approach are as:
(a) The databases are complicated to combine into an individual manufacturing information system.
(b) A number of redundant data files have to be designed or implemented.
(c) Application program and database preservation is expensive. Though, despite these complexities a dedicated database has advantage for standalone applications, here access to programs and data is restricted to a particular user. For illustration, in computer-aided design the data file such is required for stress analysis of a component is employed only via the designer.