1. Demand management by greater conservation of energy, optimum fuel mix, structural modifies in the economy, an appropriate model mix within the transport sector, that is, greater dependence on rail than on road for the movement of goods and passenger and a shift away from private modes to public modes for passenger transport, rail-road coordination; changes in design of various products to decrease the material intensity of those products, recycling, etc.
2. A shift to less energy-intensive modes of transport. This would involves measures to improve the transport infrastructure, roads, viz., better design of vehicles and use of compressed natural gas (CNG) and synthetic fuel, etc. Same, better urban planning would also decrease the demand for energy use in the transport sector.
3. A shift away from non-renewable towards renewable energy sources viz. solar, wind, biomass energy, small-hydro, etc.