Strategic Conservation is one of the non-traditional approaches to load management and results from utility-stimulated programmers directed at decreasing end use consumption by a reduction in sales as well as a change in the pattern of use of electricity. Not generally considered load management, the change reflects changes of the load shape. Examples are:
• Weatherisation involving measures such as:
i) Good heat insulation (use of thermocol, etc.),
ii) Using sun shades,
iii) Orientation of the air conditioned bed rooms to minimize solar radiation,
iv) Cleaning of air filters in ACs,
v) Use of solar films, automatic door closers, reflective curtain glass, etc.,
vi) controlled lighting (not all lights on at all times, sensor controlled switch off), use of natural light, etc.
• Energy efficiency improvement (improving specific energy consumption of an appliance through changing the technology deployed) such as using
i) compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs),
ii) energy efficient pump sets,
iii) energy efficient motors, etc.
5. Strategic Load Growth is also one of the non-traditional approaches for load management. It output in whole increase in sales. It might mean an increased use of electricity on the energy market by the development of new applications (electric cars, industrial procedure heating, microwave technologies, automation).
For instance, power utilities in the developed countries realized which they required to sell power for more than just electric lights. Few people used electric lamps during the day, so generators just sat idle during daylight hours. What were required were markets which would use power during the day (and little if any at night) so as to balance demand. This is a big purpose why electric street-cars attracted interest in these countries.
Power producers try to balance their customer base so in which demand from different users will peak at different times, allowing more well-organized use of equipment. In some cases, an increase in the use of electric energy could be motivated through national goal in terms of reducing the use of fossil fuels in countries whereas hydro-electric resources are significant.
6. Flexible Load Shape is another non-traditional form of load management and it addresses problems associated to the reliability of demand forecasts. Power utilities are never guaranteed to balance their production capacity along with the expected demand. They must make sure that they could curtail a consumer's load demand if required be (either for an immediate need or as a constituent for their energy reserves), in exchange for several incentives. The customer must then generate his/her own electricity or use other energy sources to meet his/her demands.
Load at consumer premises could be controlled in two ways depending upon the size of load and the infrastructure: Direct Load Control and Load Control through Consumers.
Direct Load Control is done directly through the power utility for large supply consumers in consultation along with them after careful planning and installing required infrastructure. We have given the instance of direct load control switches that permit the electric utilities to control appliances such as air conditioners during periods of maximum demand.
Load Control through Consumers could be completed in cases where information is sent to them about the quantity of load to be controlled along with the other related information. Then they can take the required action within the stipulated time.
We end this discussion through relating some of the latest developments in this area.