This steel is usually deoxidized steel; from that oxygen has been removed and porosity reduced. In the de-oxidation process the dissolved oxygen in the molten metal is created to react along with elements as like: aluminum, silicon, manganese, and vanadium such are added to the melt. These elements contain an affinity for oxygen and appearance metallic oxides. If aluminium is employed, the product is called aluminium-killed steel. The word killed comes from the fact that the steel lies quietly after to be poured into the mould. The oxides in the slag. A fully killed steel is hence free of any of 46 porosity and blowholes caused through gases. The mechanical and chemical properties of killed steel are relatively uniform throughout the ingot. However, because of metal shrinkage during solidification, an ingot of this type develops a pipe at the top. It is also called shrinkage cavity and has the appearance of a funnel-like shape. This pipe can comprise a substantial portion of the ingot and has to be removed.