Zoonotic diseases-kyasanur forest disease, Biology

Kyasanur forest disease


Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) was first recognized in 1957 as a new disease entity affecting man and monkeys in Karnataka, India. The disease is named after the Kyasanur forest area of Shimoga district in Karnataka (often called monkeys disease by the  villagers). The causative agent belongs to genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae and is transmitted through ticks.


Epidemiology: The transmission cycle of KFD involves mainly monkeys and ticks. But there appears to be a wide range of natural hosts other than monkeys, such as rats, shrews, birds, reptiles and cattle. Man acquires infection from bites of infected ticks during his visit to the forest. Man is a “dead-end” or tangential host and has no significance in the natural cycle of the KFD virus. There is no evidence of person-to- person transmission of KFD virus.


A seasonal pattern of incidence of KFD has been noted. The highest number of human and monkey infections occur during the dried months, particularly from January to June. This period coincides with the peak nymphal activity of ticks. This period also correlates with the period of greatest human activity of the forest.


Tick vectors:
More than 15 species of ticks are involved in the ecology of the virus. The major vectors for man are Haemaphysalis spinigera, H. papauana, H. kinneari and H. turturis.


Clinical features:
The incubation period in man is 3-8 days. The disease has a sudde n onset with fever, headache, conjunc tivitis, vomiting and diarr hoea. Gastrointestinal disturbances and haemorrhages occur in severe cases. Recovery from an attack is generally slow. The case fatality rate is about 5-10 %.


Differential diagnosis: In the absence of any history of direct exposure, Kyasanur forest disease is confused with enteric fever, influenza or pyrexia of unknown origin. In the endemic areas Kyasanur forest disease should be suspected in all patients with a sudden onset of fever. Kyasanur forest disease etiology could be established by isolating the virus from the blood or by serological tests.

Control and prevention

 

  • Control of ticks: KFD is a tick-borne disease and control of ticks should be undertaken. Insecticidal treatment of animals is a useful measure to free them from ticks.
  • Vaccination of population at risk: A killed KFD vaccine is available and may be offered to the population at risk in KFD endemic areas.
  •  Health education: individuals at risk should be protected from tick bite by adequate clothing and by the use of insect repellents. They should examine their bodies at the end of each day for ticks and remove them promptly. The habit of sitting or lying down on the ground should be discouraged.

 

Posted Date: 9/20/2012 1:52:55 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Zoonotic diseases-kyasanur forest disease, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Zoonotic diseases-kyasanur forest disease, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Zoonotic diseases-kyasanur forest disease Discussions

Write discussion on Zoonotic diseases-kyasanur forest disease
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Why d scientists pick hydrogen as the basis for MRI scanning? Name of the human body that do not appear in an MRI scan. Explain thermal stratification? How does thermal stratifi

Q. What is the difference between sexual gametes and spores? Do humans present sexual gametes or spores? Sexual spores are structures generated from meiosis with ploidy number

The Red Data Book Species judged as threatened are listed by various agencies as well as by some private organisations. The most cited of these lists is the Red Data Book. It

Bile pigments exist in both the animal and plant kingdoms, and are building by breakdown of the cyclic tetrapyrrole structure of heme. In the animals this pathway is an excretory

What would occur to the successive trophic levels in the pyramid of energy if the rate of reproduction of phytoplankton was slowed down? Suggest two factors, which could cause l

Mechanism of Cleavage Such as the mitotic division in any cell, cleavage is the result of two events: mitotic nuclear division (Karyokinesis) followed via cytoplasmic divisio

Q. Nutritional Management for lactose intolerance? Diagnostic tests are available that can give information about the level and activity of the lactase enzyme. Depending on the

Define Changes in Tract Minerals - Nutrition during Stress? Changes in the balance of magnesium, phosphate, zinc and potassium follows alterations in nitrogen balance. Iron and

Define Meat as a Rich Source of Protein? Skeletal or striated muscles are used for food purposes. Flesh of cattle, sheep and swine comprise most of the meat contents. Edible me

Graphs are a way to convey information and trends in a convenient fashion. For this week's Discussion Board you should search the internet for a graph related to biology. Provide u