TanapoxTanapox infection is endemic to equatorial Africa and is extremely rare outside Africa. Tanapox was initially recognized in humans in 1957 and 1962 in Kenya. It is caused by the Tanapox virus belonging to the genus Yatapoxvirus of Poxviridae family. Tanapox is suspected to be transmitted through blood-sucking insects. It is believed that monkeys are the reservoir of the virus and blood-sucking insects transmit the infection from these animals to man. Individuals who handle monkey in captivity and in laboratory may contract the infection through abrasions and scratches on the skin. The disease in man is similar to smallpox in the initial stage but they did not turn into pustules. Patients may not have more than one or two lesions. The recognition of tanapox is crucial, and an accurate diagnosis can have important public health implications. PCR is the most reliable method for diagnosis and differentiation of Tanapox virus.