Working of a computer, Basic Computer Science

Working of a Computer

Computer may be divided into the following units

  •     Input Unit
  •     Main Memory or Primary Storage Unit
  •     Arithmetic-Logic Unit
  •     Control Unit and
  •     Output Unit

The Control Unit along with the Main Memory and Arithmetic Logic Unit is called the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The CPU is considered to be the heart of any Computer System.

1. Input Unit: The input unit consists of physical devices through which data or program can be read into the machine. Some of the common input devices are Keyboard, Card Reader, Paper Tape Reader, Magnetic Tape Drives, Magnetic Disk Drive, Floppy Disk Drive, etc.

2. Main Memory or Primary Storage: The main memory can be considered to have been divided into four work areas without any fixed physical boundaries.
  1. Input Storage Area: Is where the data fed in is held till they are ready to be processed.

  2. Working Storage Area: Is where the data are processed and the intermediate results are held.

  3. Output Storage Area: Is where the final results of the processing are held until they can be released.

  4. Program Storage Area: Is where the processing instructions, i.e. the program, is stored.

In addition to the main memory, most computers have secondary or auxiliary storage capabilities also. Secondary storage devices are centrally connected on- line to the CPU where they serve as reference libraries by accepting data directly to the CPU without human intervention.

Figure 1: Basic Structure of a Computer

1416_basic structure of computer.png3.
3. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU): The Arithmetic and Logic Units of most computers are capable of performing addition, subtraction, division and multiplication as well as logical operations.

The data from primary storage is transferred to the ALU where processing takes place, as per the program instructions. The ALU contains one or more storage locations called registers. The registers provide temporary storage for one or both of the operands that take part in the calculations. After the calculations are over, the results are transferred into the memory.

4. Control Unit: The control unit acts as a central nervous system for all the components of the computer. At the beginning of processing, the first program instruction is selected and fed into the control unit from the program storage area. There it is interpreted and from there signals are sent to other components for necessary action. Other program instructions are then selected and executed in a sequence until the processing is complete.
5. Output Unit: The output unit consists of physical devices to record the results obtained by the computer and present them to the outside world. Most output devices are directed by the control unit, which also causes the necessary information to be supplied to them. Some of the common output devices are: Visual Display Unit (VDU), Printers, Card Punching Machines, Magnetic Tape Drives, Magnetic Disk Drive, Floppy Disk Drive, Graph Plotters, etc.
Posted Date: 9/14/2012 5:06:01 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Working of a computer, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Working of a computer, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Working of a computer Discussions

Write discussion on Working of a computer
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
two characteristics og CISC architecture?

Question 1 How can you create surface with 3D Scanner in geometric modeling? Question 2 Explain kinematics modeling in virtual reality Question 3 Describe object hierarc

Does Process Manager in Operating System know the dependency order that Process A depends on Process B?

For which X,Y in {o, O, Theta, Omega, omega}, do the relationships t(n)+t''(n) = X(min(t(n),t''(n))) and t(n)+t''(n) = Y(max(t(n),t''(n))) hold for all t,t'' such that t(n),t''(n)

Languages The language is a program containing rules and guidelines to help us in making programs. There are various languages like C, Basic, COBOL, PASCAL, FORTRAN etc. Th

benefit a company derive from managing it own information technology

Search in Problem Solving: If Artificial intelligence I may inform the other sciences about anything, it is about problem solving and, in specific, how to find solutions to pro

when was the first computer made

Database Management Software: For storage of large amounts of varied data, and rapid retrieval and interpretations of data, the database is the ideal tool. It is most useful for s

Another way of classifying a computer system is based upon its size and capabilities: Microcomputers: Microcomputers are systems based on the use of microprocessors. A Micr