Working of a computer, Basic Computer Science

Working of a Computer

Computer may be divided into the following units

  •     Input Unit
  •     Main Memory or Primary Storage Unit
  •     Arithmetic-Logic Unit
  •     Control Unit and
  •     Output Unit

The Control Unit along with the Main Memory and Arithmetic Logic Unit is called the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The CPU is considered to be the heart of any Computer System.

1. Input Unit: The input unit consists of physical devices through which data or program can be read into the machine. Some of the common input devices are Keyboard, Card Reader, Paper Tape Reader, Magnetic Tape Drives, Magnetic Disk Drive, Floppy Disk Drive, etc.

2. Main Memory or Primary Storage: The main memory can be considered to have been divided into four work areas without any fixed physical boundaries.
  1. Input Storage Area: Is where the data fed in is held till they are ready to be processed.

  2. Working Storage Area: Is where the data are processed and the intermediate results are held.

  3. Output Storage Area: Is where the final results of the processing are held until they can be released.

  4. Program Storage Area: Is where the processing instructions, i.e. the program, is stored.

In addition to the main memory, most computers have secondary or auxiliary storage capabilities also. Secondary storage devices are centrally connected on- line to the CPU where they serve as reference libraries by accepting data directly to the CPU without human intervention.

Figure 1: Basic Structure of a Computer

1416_basic structure of computer.png3.
3. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU): The Arithmetic and Logic Units of most computers are capable of performing addition, subtraction, division and multiplication as well as logical operations.

The data from primary storage is transferred to the ALU where processing takes place, as per the program instructions. The ALU contains one or more storage locations called registers. The registers provide temporary storage for one or both of the operands that take part in the calculations. After the calculations are over, the results are transferred into the memory.

4. Control Unit: The control unit acts as a central nervous system for all the components of the computer. At the beginning of processing, the first program instruction is selected and fed into the control unit from the program storage area. There it is interpreted and from there signals are sent to other components for necessary action. Other program instructions are then selected and executed in a sequence until the processing is complete.
5. Output Unit: The output unit consists of physical devices to record the results obtained by the computer and present them to the outside world. Most output devices are directed by the control unit, which also causes the necessary information to be supplied to them. Some of the common output devices are: Visual Display Unit (VDU), Printers, Card Punching Machines, Magnetic Tape Drives, Magnetic Disk Drive, Floppy Disk Drive, Graph Plotters, etc.
Posted Date: 9/14/2012 5:06:01 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Working of a computer, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Working of a computer, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Working of a computer Discussions

Write discussion on Working of a computer
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Reflex agent-Artificial Intelligence If an agent decides and executes an action in response to a sensor input without consultation of its world, then it may be considered a ref

Problem 1 Explain the different categories of electronic payment system in detail Listing the types and sub types Explanation Problem 2 We know that there a

CONCEPT OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE: In order to communicate with other human beings, one needs some language or a medium. In the same way for solving problems, a programming  lan

create a flowchart showing average score for the 3 quizzes assume that there are 3 sections each having 5 students the only valid number to be entered is 1-100 for the quizzes shou

Question 1 What is meant by typography? Describe the process in which one can choose and use type Question 2 What is investigative reporting? Write a long note Question 3

Question 1 Draw a neat diagram of the organization of computer and explain about each unit Question 2 Explain batch processing system and multi-processing in brief Questi

Program Planning (Preparation of a Flow Chart) A flow chart is a graphic method for indicating a proposed or actual solution to the problem. A flow chart shows the steps a comp


Will someone be able to help me with this I have two text files that I can send. I am confused, is someone looking at this or is it still waiting to be assigned? this is the code

Applications Software: General aspects on applications software. Applications software is the program that allow the user to get the required work done. In other words, applic