Wigs and hairs - Seed Appendages
Seeds of certain plants have epidermal outgrowths or the integuments themselves may form folds and projections that present a wing-like appearance. In the tree Oroxylon sp. a thin, transparently white, circular or oval, disc-like wing spreads all around the two-lobed seed. The seed of cucurbit Zanonia macrocarpa has wings measuring up to 10 cm.
In the drumstick plant Moringa oleifera the seed has three equidistant wings. Seed wings provide large surface area, with optimum strength, combined with a minimum of material. A surprisingly large number of winged seeds can be arranged compactly in a fruit. Wings help the seed to propel, sail or spin some distance away when released from the fruit.