Why did the Pueblo people revolt against the Spanish in 1680? What were the results of this revolt?
Spanish Exploration and Conquest-Spain was the first European nation to explore and colonize much of the Western Hemisphere. The Spaniards gained extensive holdings stretching from South America northward to the present-day Southwestern United States. Between 1540 and 1600, Spanish explorers and Catholic priests established settlements and missions in the present-day Southwest. They sought to convert the native people, whom they called Pueblos (Spanish for "village") to Catholicism.The Pueblos, like many Indian peoples, borrowed new tools and ideas from Europeans, but mixed these with their native culture. Indians were often eager to acquire metal tools (especially knives and cookware), livestock, cloth, firearms, and other items from European settlers. But the Spanish treated the Pueblos harshly, compelling them to work to support Spanish missions and settlements and forcing them to abandon many of their native traditions and to accept the Catholic faith. While the Pueblos were forced to accept Catholicism, they in fact usually blended Catholic and Indian spiritual beliefs.The Pueblos sometimes revolted against Spanish rule. As early as 1599, Pueblos lashed out at the Spanish invaders, but their rebellion was put down by the Spaniards, who killed hundreds of Pueblo people to quell the rebellion. The Pueblos revolted several times during the 1600s. In 1680, a Pueblo shaman (a holy man, one who kept the Indians' spiritual traditions) named Pop led an uprising against the Spaniards. Pop had been persecuted by the Spanish in 1675 for refusing to renounce some of his Pueblo traditions and beliefs. Pop's supporters lashed out at Spanish settlers and missionaries, destroying missions and killing 21 of 33 Catholic priests in the Southwest. Pop's rebellion of 1680 was a revitalization movement, in which the Pueblo people killed livestock and rid themselves of European goods and vestiges of Catholicism in an effort to regain their original land and way of life. Pop's revolt was perhaps the most successful Indian rebellion in American history, and his Pueblo followers shook off Spanish domination for more than a decade. In the 1690s, however, the Spaniards reasserted control over most Indian peoples of the Southwest. In the 1700s Spain, fearing territorial gains by its European rivals, began to treat the Pueblo people more leniently.