Q. Why do diabetic patients often undergo dietary sugar restriction? What are the major complications of diabetes mellitus?
Diabetic patients are frequently advised to ingest fewer carbohydrates since these substances are degraded into glucose and this molecule is absorbed in the intestines and the dietary sugar restriction goal is to control glycemia to maintain it at normal levels.
The key complications of diabetes are tissue injuries that occur in vaious organs caused by the chronic increased blood osmolarity: resulting in sensitivity loss, in the peripheral nerves (diabetic neuropathy), increased wounds (the person does not feel that the tissue is being wounded and the wound expands) and muscle fatigue in the kidneys (diabetic nephropathy), causing glomerular lesions that may lead to renal failure, in the retina (diabetic retinopathy), leading to blindness and vision impairment; in the skin, as a consequence of the neuropathy. Diabetes mellitus also is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases like myocardial infarction, embolism and stroke.