WELD DEFECTSThe common defects encountered in submerged arc welding are:
a). Slag Inclusion: Slag inclusion is the result of incomplete dislodging of each layer during multiphase welding. Using Proper cleaning of each pass, the defect can be avoided. Improper wire positioning creates under cuts resulting in slag inclusion in those areas.b). Porosity: Porosity in submerged arc welding occurs mainly due to the presence of contaminants in the metal surface or electrode and due to moisture pick up by the flux. In addition, the gases generated during welding may get entrapped in weld due to improper selection of process parameters such as excessive current, too high welding speed or excessive height of flux layer.c). Cracking: The main factor in promoting cracking in the weldment is the chemical composition of the steel itself. If the steel is hardemable, cracking can be avoided by proper selection of preheat and by controlling the hydrogen level during welding. Cracking may also occur due to susceptibility of the material to hot shortness.This defect is mainly associated with the sulphur content in the weld and can be controlled by the adjustment of manganese content in the flux. The other major cause of cracking could be due to the external restraints forced on to the joint during cooling. In general, the weld metal cracking can be avoided by proper selection of current, voltage and travel speed to yield a weld deposit with a bead formation factor, that is bead width to depth ratio around 3:2.