Water Sources and Requirements:
In this part, we have discussed:
(a) Basic concepts in planning of water supply schemes.
(b) Various types of water requirement.
(c) Sources of water.
Whenever water supply scheme is planned, it is essential to ascertain the requirement of water and the probable sources from which the requirement could be met. In case sufficient amount of water as per requirement is not available then either we curtail the requirement if possible and use the source available, or if requirement cannot be curtailed then more than one source is to be searched to supplement total water requirement. In Indian conditions, total water requirement may vary from place to place and climatic conditions besides the status and habit of the residents.
There are mainly two sources of water in Indian conditions, i.e. surface water and underground water. The ground water are generally clearer and free from impurities, while surface water contains suspended impurities and are more polluted. Water sources are selected based on the quantity and quality available, distance of the source from the city, general topography of the intervening area, elevation of the source of supply and total finance available.