Transplantation, Biology

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Transplantation -

  • It is implanting of a living or preserved tissue or organ from one site to another side in the same individual or from one individual called donor to recipient.
  • Cornea transplant performed in 1905 was one of first organ transplant.
  • First kidney transplant was done between identical twins in 1954 by Dr. Charls Hufnagel.
  • Christian Bernard performed the first heart transplant.
  • The problem in tissue transplanation is of shortage of compatible donors & the rejection ractions graft reaction is of 3 types - acute, hyperacute & chronic.
  • According to the site of transplantation, there are 2 types -

1. Orthopic graft - If it is transplanted at normal recipient site eg. heart transplant.

2. Heterotopic graft - If it is transplanted at abnormal site e.g. kidney transplant in iliac fossa.

According to the genetic relationship between donor & recipient it is of 4 types -

1.       Syngeneic or Autograft -

Same individual

2.       Isogeneic or isograft -

Same species gentically identical.

3.       Allogenecic or allograph -

Same species genetically unrelated.

4.       Xenogenic graft or xenograph -

Different species.


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