Transgenic animals, Biology

Transgenic animals

There are various definitions for the term transgenic animal. The transgenic animal is an animal in which there has been a deliberate modification of its genome, the genetic makeup of an organism responsible for inherited characteristics. The nucleus of all cells in every living organism contains genes made up of DNA. These genes store information that regulates how our bodies form and function. Genes can be altered artificially, so that some characteristics of an animal are changed. For example, an embryo can have an extra, functioning gene from another source artificially introduced into it, or a gene introduced which can knock out the functioning of another particular gene in the embryo. Animals that have their DNA manipulated in this way are knows as transgenic animals. Transgenic animals first emerged during the mid-

1980s and then this work opened the way for applications of transgenesis in animals and has resulted in efforts along four lines.

1.  Production of pharmaceuticals expressed in milk,

2.  Production of animals as organ donors for xenotransplants,

3.  Creation of models for study of human disease, and

4.  Development of livestock suitable for use in agriculture.

The goal of gene transfer should be to enhance the quality of life for humans or the livestock being developed, or to significantly benefit resource conservation. Transgenesis offers the opportunity to increase performance of agricultural animals through improved feed intake, enhanced metabolism, better feed conversion, or reduced pathogen load; create novel or enhanced food and fibre products, permitting diversification of agricultural products; and reduce susceptibility to diseases, thereby improving food quality and security, decreasing antibiotic use, and enhancing resource conservation. Medicines required to treat certain human diseases can contain biological products, but such products are often expensive to make. Transgenic animals that produce useful biological products can be created by the introduction of the portion of DNA, which codes for a particular product. For example, large amounts of a human protein (á-1-antitrypsin) are used to treat a life-threatening condition called emphysema. Transgenic sheep were developed which make the protein in their milk in larger quantities than could be produced by conventional cell-culture methods. There is evidence that biological products can leak into the blood supply of the animal that is producing them.

Posted Date: 9/18/2012 7:40:06 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Transgenic animals, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Transgenic animals, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Transgenic animals Discussions

Write discussion on Transgenic animals
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
The gene is a distinct portion of a cell's DNA. Genes are coded instructions for making all the body needs, mainly proteins. Human beings have about 25,000 genes. Researchers have

What do biomass pyramids represent? The Biomass pyramids represent the sum of the masses of the individuals that participate in each trophic level of a food chain.

What is genetic engineering? The Genetic engineering is the use of genetic knowledge to artificially manipulate genes: It is one of the fields of biotechnology.

Ask Two true-breeding pea plants were crossed. One parent is round, terminal, violet, constricted, while the other expresses the respective contrasting phenotypes of wrinkled, axia

Describe cytokinesis in a plant cell. Vesicles produced by the Golgi apparatus fuse at  the midline of the cell to form the cell plate, a  cell wall that elongates to divide th

Food Applications of Curdlan Curdlan has a variety of food applications as enumerated herewith: a)  Meat and Poultry Curdlan makes meat and poultry products juicier and

What is the Speech Perception Test The subject is asked to listen to a series of 60 sounds, each of which consists of a double e digraph with varying prefixes and suffixes. The

Transport system in higher animals The circulatory system in higher animals has undergone several changes during evolution. The heart has become totally muscular. It p

What are sori? The word "sori" is the plural form of "sorus". In ferns, a sorus (pl. sori) is a cluster of sporangia on the edge or underside of a fertile frond. In lots of spe

Graphs are a way to convey information and trends in a convenient fashion. For this week's Discussion Board you should search the internet for a graph related to biology. Provide u