In this section we will see how knowledge of some rather simple graphs can help us graph some more complexes graphs. Collectively the methods we will learn in this section are called transformations.
Vertical Shifts
Given the graph of f ( x ) the graph of g ( x ) = f (x ) + c will be the graph of f (x )shifted up through c units if c is +ve and or down through c units if c is -ve.
Thus, if we can graph f ( x ) getting the graph of g ( x ) is fairly simple.