Tpes of Diarrhoea:
Diarrhoea can be acute, chroniclpersistent diarrhoea and dysentery.
If an episode of diarrhoea lasts less than 14 days, it is acute diarrhoea. Acute watery diarrhoea causes dehydration and contributes to malnutrition. The death of a child with acute diarrhoea is usually due to dehydration. If the diarrhoea lasts 14 days or more, it is persistent diarrhoea. Up to 20 per cent of episodes of diarrhoea become persistent. Persistent diarrhoea ofter, causes nutritional problems that contribute to deaths in children who have diarrhoea Diarrhoea with blood in the stool, with or without mucus, is called dysentry.
The most common cause of dysentery is Shigella bacteria. Amoebic dysentery is not common in young children. A child may have both watery diarrhoea and dysentery.
The causes of diarrhoea can be classified as follows:
i) Infectious causes Viral : Rota virus, Norwalk and allied viruses, Enterovirus, Influenza virus, measles virus. Bacterial : E.coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Campylobacter Jeguni, Yersinia enterocolitice, Clostridium dificile, Aeromoneus hydrophilia, Vibrio parahemolyticus, klebsella. Parasities : Giardia Larnbila, Entarnoeba histolytica, Canadida albicans, 8 Trichuris, Trichuria, Strongyliods stercoralis. Fungi : Canadida albicans, Histoplasma capsulatum
ii) Drugs : Antibiotics
iii) Diet : Food poisoning, Food allergy, Overeating, Starvation
iv) Necrotising enterocolitis
v) Other causes : Intussusception, Uremic syndrome, Congenital aganglionic . mgacolon, Neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome.