Theory of production and cost, Microeconomics

• Production Function . The factors of production have to be combined in a particular manner to produce a certain product. Think of baking a cake which involves mixing fixed proportions of the ingredients, following a definite procedure. Indeed, baking a cake is production in economic terms. The set of all feasible combinations of factors of production and output levels produced by them is known as the production set.

• Short Run Production Process,

• Law of Diminishing Marginal Product: This law states that given the fixed factor of production, as the amount of the variable factor is increased, a certain stage is reached beyond which the MP declines. That is, the output produced increases but at a diminishing rate. On further increasing the variable factor, the output produced starts declining.

• Long Run Production Process: The first graph depicts the long run scenario when it is possible to vary all the inputs. The red lines represent the output produced and are called isoquants. Isoquants are the locus if the feasible combinations of inputs that produce a given amount of output.

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