The Exine Layer
It consists of two layers, inner (nexine) which is continuous and an outer (sexine) the sculptured one. The outer layer has ornamentations comprising rod-like bacula showing terminal expansion which sometimes fuses to form a roof like tectum perforated by micropores. During pollen development, the tapetum releases a mixture called tryphine, consisting of carotenoid lipid droplets and fibrogranular proteins into the thecal cavity. These fibrogranular proteins are enclosed in membrane bound cisternae. In tectate pollen, the released substances of tapetum become incorporated on the surface of pollen grains where cisternae membrane ruptures and protein released through micropores enter the tectum and accumulate in the interspaces of bacula.
Pollenkitt is the pigmented lipid fraction left on the surface of the tectum. Unlike intine, the exine held proteins exhibit only one enzymatic activity. The hydration of pollen is described to be stimulatory in releasing the proteins held in the pollen wall layers. The calculated time taken by the exine held proteins of sporophytic origin to pass out is 30 seconds while the intine of gametophytic origin takes a few minutes. This time difference in the protein release has made it easy to collect both samples separately. In SSI systems therefore the rejection reaction is faster than in GSI system.