Temperate deciduous forest - Ecosystem
The temperate forests are characterised by a moderate climate and broad-leafed deciduous trees, which shed their leaves in fall, are bare over winter and grow new foliage in the spring. These forests are characteristic of north America, Europe, Eastern Asia, Chile, part of Australia and Japan, with a cold winter and an annual rainfall of 75-150 cm. and a temperature of 10-20°C. The precipitation may be fairly uniform throughout year. In Himalayas occur Temperate vegetation including pines, fir and juniper trees with an undergrowth of scrubby rhododendrons at elevations of 2743-3658 metres.
Trees are quite tall about 40-50 m in height and their leaves are thin and broad. The predominant genera of this biome are maple (Acer), beach (Faqus), oak (Quercus), hickory (Carya), basswood (Tilia), chestnut (Castnea), and cotton wood (Populus). In some locations, coniferous vegetation may be quite predominant and that includes white pines (Pinus strobus), and willow (Salix). Soils of temperate forests are podozolic and fairly deep. The animals inhabiting the temperate forests are deer, beers, squirrels, gray foxes, bobcats, wild turkey and woodpeckers. Common invertebrates include earthworms, snails, millipedes, coleoptera and orthoptera and vertebrates like amphibians such as toad. Salamander cricket and frog, reptiles, such as turtle, lizard and snake, mammals such as racoon, opossum, pig, mountain lion, etc. and birds like horned owl, hawks, etc. The range of animal size and adaptations is wide; the larger animals include such as deer and black deer. The dominant carnivores are large including the wolf and mountain lion although smaller carnivores such as fox and skunk are also common. Plants and animals of temperate forest allow a profound seasonality in behaviour, some even hibernate throughout the winter.