Technical loss in electrical systems, Electrical Engineering

Technical Loss in Electrical Systems

Technical loss is inherent in electrical systems, as all electrical devices have a few resistances and the flow of currents causes a power loss (I2R loss). Integration of this power loss over time, i.e. ∫ I2R.dt is the energy loss. Every element in a power system (a line or a transformer) offers resistance to power flow and, therefore, consumes some energy although performing the duty expected of it. The cumulative energy consumed by all these elements is classified as "Technical Loss." Technical losses are because of energy dissipated in the conductors and equipment used for Transmission, Transformation, Sub- transmission and Distribution of Power. These occur at several places in a distribution system - in lines, mid-span joints and terminations transformers, service cables and connections and etc.

Table: Losses Due to Technical Reasons

•  Line losses

•  Loss in conductors/cables where lowersize conductors are used. This causessags and temperature rise in conductorswhich further aggravate the loss,

•  Loss in higher loaded phase wires due to unbalanced loading,

•  Loss due to current in neutral for cases or unbalance where neutral wires of lowersize are used (like 3 ½ core cables, andneutral wires of size lower than phasewires),

•  Loosening of strands (in multi-strandconductors like ACSR, AAC, AAA, etc.). 

•  Loss in mid-span joints

(or any joint) and at


•  Contacts of joints due to improper installation and looseness,

•  Contacts of joints due to inadequatesurface area of contact.

•  Loss in transformers

(typically DTs)


•  Loose connections at bushings,

•  Bend in jumpers at connectors where the strands are not tightly held,

•  High no-load loss depending on type of core used, 

•  High no-load loss in repaired transformers where the core has not been properly tightened,

•  No load loss in case a large number of lightly loaded DTs,

•  High copper loss for transformers operating at sub-optimal loading which is not commensurate with the designed optimal loading. 

•  Loss in service cables

and connections

•  Undersized service cables,

•  Loss in joints of service cables at the poles/junction boxes,

•  Use of inappropriate fasteners without spring washers at the crimped joints.

•  Loss due to high

impedance faults

•  Tree touching, creepers, bird nesting,

•  Insulator breakages and tracking on surface of the insulator.

•  Loss in re-wired


•  Loose connections,

•  Inadequate size of fuse wires - often a source of hot spots.

The magnitude of energy dissipation depends hugely on the pattern of loading of transmission and distribution lines, kinds of loads, design of lines and etc. It is not probable to eliminate such losses inherent in a system altogether. They could, thus, be reduced to some extent. The technical losses could be further sub-grouped depending upon the stage of power transformation and transmission system as Sub-transmission losses (33 kV/11kV), Transmission losses (400 kV/220 kV/132 kV/66 kV), and Distribution losses (11 kV/0.4 kV).

Posted Date: 2/6/2013 4:22:59 AM | Location : United States

Related Discussions:- Technical loss in electrical systems, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Technical loss in electrical systems, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Technical loss in electrical systems Discussions

Write discussion on Technical loss in electrical systems
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
a dc generator has 300 turns in each field coil. the flux per pol is 0.1 wb. find the average value of EMF inducet in field winding in the flux decays to zero in 0.3 second?

Flow Chart and Cause-Effect Diagram Flow Charts Flow charts are pictorial representations of a procedure. By breaking the procedure down within its constituent steps, f

Semiconductor Diode: the semi conductor diode is formed by simply bringing n and p tripe material together (constructed from same base ge and si), at the instant the two mater

8 bit  data to memory This form  of the  instruction is used to  copy 8 bit  data directly  to the memory  location pointed  by register pair HL.  The instruction  format is

Name the switching schemes used in a digital exchange

Gis Applications So far, you have learnt how GIS can help utilities to obtain snapshots of the locations of substations, lines and cables in relation to their geographical bea

A 1000-hp, 2300-V, wye-connected, three-phase, 60-Hz, 20-pole synchronous motor, for which cylindrical-rotor theory can be used and all losses can be neglected, has a synchronous r

Q. Discuss the operation of a transistorized phase shift oscillator with the help of a diagram? Explain the phase shifting circuit? An oscillator is a circuit which converts el

Q. Consider a 240-V supply feeding a resistive load of 10 kW through wires having a total resistance of R = 0.02 . For the same load, let a 120-V supply be used with a total wire

The term representing the energy stored in the coil may be written in terms of the inductance of the coil as... The energy stored in the coil increases with the square of t