Stimulus and response, Science

Stimulus and Response: Scientists concerned with human behaviour and attitudes, namely psychologists, have tried to understand the basic process of learning, starting from simple models and situations. The simplest model is that of stimulus and response. The Russian Nobel Prize winner, Ivan Pavlov in early 1900s canied out some experiments on dogs which were perhaps the best examples of a stimulus producing a certain kind of  response. While studying the physiology of digestion in dogs he wanted to measure the flow of saliva. For this he inserted a tube in the cheek of the dog and placed a bowl of meat in front of  it and the dog began to salivate.

 

1565_Stimulus and Response1.png

apparatus devised by the Russ~an  scientist to  test learned reflexes. Saliva  canied by a tube to beaker, acttvated a lever connwted to the pen beyond the screen at left. Each dmp of saliva was registered by a mark on the revotvtng drum. The dogs evidently  learned to enjoy their work, hopping up onto the platform without being asked. This, of  coutse, is a natural response of any dog. He begins to salivate when he gets his food. But a strange thing happened. The dog began  to salivate at the sight of the apparatus or the experimenter  even before the food was placed in front of  it. Pavlov could have treated this as an experimental nuisance but being a scientist he started asking questions. Pavlov knew that salivation  at the sight  of food was a natural reflex action.  It happens in every dog since birth, but the other reaction was something new, what we can call a learned reflex. Now he decided to investigate if  the dog could be made to associate  food .with other stimuli. In a typical experiment, a bell was sounded  just before the meat was given to the dog. This was repeated several times. Pavlov noticed that the dog now began  to salivate as soon as the bell was rung even if food was not given. The animal associated the two stimuli, food and bell, therefore, one could be substituted for the other. Table shows the steps in  this training process.   

2117_Stimulus and Response.png

 

 

Posted Date: 9/28/2012 8:57:05 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Stimulus and response, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Stimulus and response, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Stimulus and response Discussions

Write discussion on Stimulus and response
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
how has Modern sequencing helped in our understanding of the human genome?

Explain the Liver and Biliary System The liver is the largest gland in the body. It weighs about 1500 g. It is situated in the upper part of the abdominal cavity. The liver sec

Why is there more exchangeable calcium than potassium on clay/humus colloid? Calcium is usually abundant except in acid soils which occur in humid area due to excessive leaching.

Explain about the Alluvial soils Alluvial soils are characterised by their extreme depth, often several hundred feet, and a grey or greyish brown colour. Their texture varies

Germinating pollen grains Apparatus Used-Make a strong sugar solution and place it in a shallow dish like a saucer or Circular  Plate. Shake pollen from several Different kinds

thesis writing with 40 pages, topic Mapping the criminal mind: Profiling and its limitation''.

Advantages of Proteins Proteins are compounds of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. On an  average, proteins contain 16% nitrogen. Most proteins also contain sulphur and

State the Role of Algae - Weathering Algae also plays an important role because it brings about increase in organic matter due to photosynthesis. The organic matter and CO2  fo

difference between micro and macro nutrients

Explain the term - hydrolysis yield ammonium ion In addition to ammonium compounds, materials such as urea which, upon hydrolysis yield ammonium ion, are again a potential sour