Stimulus and response, Science

Stimulus and Response: Scientists concerned with human behaviour and attitudes, namely psychologists, have tried to understand the basic process of learning, starting from simple models and situations. The simplest model is that of stimulus and response. The Russian Nobel Prize winner, Ivan Pavlov in early 1900s canied out some experiments on dogs which were perhaps the best examples of a stimulus producing a certain kind of  response. While studying the physiology of digestion in dogs he wanted to measure the flow of saliva. For this he inserted a tube in the cheek of the dog and placed a bowl of meat in front of  it and the dog began to salivate.

 

1565_Stimulus and Response1.png

apparatus devised by the Russ~an  scientist to  test learned reflexes. Saliva  canied by a tube to beaker, acttvated a lever connwted to the pen beyond the screen at left. Each dmp of saliva was registered by a mark on the revotvtng drum. The dogs evidently  learned to enjoy their work, hopping up onto the platform without being asked. This, of  coutse, is a natural response of any dog. He begins to salivate when he gets his food. But a strange thing happened. The dog began  to salivate at the sight of the apparatus or the experimenter  even before the food was placed in front of  it. Pavlov could have treated this as an experimental nuisance but being a scientist he started asking questions. Pavlov knew that salivation  at the sight  of food was a natural reflex action.  It happens in every dog since birth, but the other reaction was something new, what we can call a learned reflex. Now he decided to investigate if  the dog could be made to associate  food .with other stimuli. In a typical experiment, a bell was sounded  just before the meat was given to the dog. This was repeated several times. Pavlov noticed that the dog now began  to salivate as soon as the bell was rung even if food was not given. The animal associated the two stimuli, food and bell, therefore, one could be substituted for the other. Table shows the steps in  this training process.   

2117_Stimulus and Response.png

 

 

Posted Date: 9/28/2012 8:57:05 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Stimulus and response, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Stimulus and response, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Stimulus and response Discussions

Write discussion on Stimulus and response
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Moisture comes from other plants Secure a flower pot which has some bean or pea seedlings that are 10 or 15 cm in height. Cover the top of the pot with cellophane or sheet rubb

Question 1 Analyse the Human - Ecosystem interactions Question 2 Discuss the importance of PPP in attaining sustainability Question 3 Explain the Benefits and c

Explain Examination of Urine Examination of urine is done to detect the presence of any abnormal constituent(s) and hence can be used as an important screening test for identif

You are the mayor of a beautiful city by the ocean, and your city is connected to the mainland by a set of k bridges. Your city manager tells you that it is necessary to come up wi

Consider the following differential equation: t 2 x''+ 5 t x' + (3 + 2 t) x = 0 a. Show the steps needed to derive the recursive formula for the coefficients of the pow

Determine about the Bicarbonates Bicarbonates are highly soluble, Ca(HCO3)2 goes into solution. Further,  stronger acids, like nitric a nd sulphuric acid present  in soils thro

The Fujita Scale is used to classify intensities of: Tornadoes

Ecology and environment: Today, we hear people from different walks of  life, using the terms ecology and environment. Politicians,  leaders. town planners, students and archit

List any three human activities that you think would lead to air pollution. The following three human activities would lead to air pollution: (i) Burning of fossil fuels such

PREPARATION OF A LIST OF MISSINGISURPLUSI NON FUNCTIONAL ITEMS After the second activity you will enter into Activity 3 i.e. verification of the stock leading to preparat