Stages of Research Process:
Planning Stage The planning stage of research process includes a series of interdependent steps consisting of
1) conceptualizatioq of the research problem,
(ii) review of literature,
(iii) development of a conceptual framework, and
(iv) the research design.
Although many of these stepsare different in their purpose they overlap in time so that several steps are being carried on at the same time. For example, "review of literature" is usually carried out at the time of conceptualization of reskarch problem, development of conceptual framework and also while planning research design.
Conceptualization of research problem may include several activities, such as stating the problem, defining objectives, purposes and terms to be used in the study. The research design further includes steps taken in selecting research method (or approach) and sample; planning for data collection, data processing, data analysis and interpretation. Pilot study tests the feasibility of the design. Therefore, it can be seen that all the steps of planning stage comes before any data are collected.
The implementing phase involves mainly the collection of data and analysis of data, through descriptive or inferential statistics, and the interpretation of the results. In research the investigator collects the data that are reliable and valid by using various techniques such as questioning, observation or measurement. If you'have a question that asks: "how does one know that the questionnaire will measure what it intends to measure and that it measures accurately", you are then asking for validity and reliability.