Stabilisation - Climax
The whole process of succession results in stabilisation of the vegetation which is now in complete harmony with the environmental complex of that place. And it is likely to persist as long as the climatic and physiographic conditions remain unchanged. The soil is fully occupied by plants and the community is closed. Only those species, which are capable of completing their life cycles, despite the intense competition, establish themselves, the homeostasis is thus attained. This final community is not replaced, and is known as climax community and the stage as climax stage.
The kind of succession that takes place from simple, few forms to complex, several kinds of forms are known as progressive succession. In some cases, reverse situation is seen, that is, the process of succession, instead of being progressive becomes retrogressive. This may be due to the destructive effects of organisms. For example, a forest changing into a grassland community is an example of retrogressive succession.