Sources of external economies of scale:
Economies of Skilled Labour:
This involves upgrading the skills of labour through the provision of education and training facilities in a well-organised industry. This ensures that education and training of labour do not become part of the industry’s daily operations but rather some specialized institutions take over the performance of these functions. This is often easier in well-organised industries than less organized ones. Such education and training culminate in economies of manpower development and generally lower the cost of production in the industry.