Some common air pollutants: oxides of nitrogen, Biology

Oxides of nitrogen:

         These include nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). NO is a colourless, odourless and inert gas but like CO it can also combine with haemoglobin to reduce oxygen carrying capacity of blood.

NO2 is reddish brown in colour having pungent smell and is suffocating in nature.

Sources:

(i)     Fuel combustion in automobiles and industries.

(ii)   Lightening.

(iii) Forest fires

(iv) Bacterial decomposition of organic matter

(v)   Natural ionizing radiations.

Sinks: the NO and NO2 undergo various photochemical and chemical reactions in the atmosphere leading to formation of HNO3 within 3 to 4 days. The end product HNO3 precipitates as nitrate salts in either rainfall or on dust particles.O3 plays very important role in the formation of HNO3.

         O3 + NO2              NO3 + O2

         NO3 + NO2           N2O5

         N2O5 + H2O                 2HNO3

Health effects:

(i)     At high conc. It causes acute bronchitis and prolonged exposure to low concentration of it causes bronchitis in children.

(ii)   It causes eye irritation and even lung congestions.

(iii) In sunlight, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons form smog which limits visibility of roads, causes eye irritation, difficulty in breathing.

Control measures:

(i)     Modifying the engine design: use of two stage combustion process to reduce excess of air in engine.

(ii)   Use of two stage catalytic converter for exhaust emissions.

(iii) By using scrubber containing H2SO4 or Ca (OH)2, Mg(OH)2 solution for flue gases.

Posted Date: 7/12/2012 1:41:27 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Some common air pollutants: oxides of nitrogen, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Some common air pollutants: oxides of nitrogen, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Some common air pollutants: oxides of nitrogen Discussions

Write discussion on Some common air pollutants: oxides of nitrogen
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
Curdlan Curdlan, a glucan with (1→3) is produced by bacterium  Alkaliqenus faecalis  var. myogenes and some related bacteria. It is a tasteless, odorless white powder, which sw

Explain the Criteria for Assessment of Folate Status Red cell folate, continues to be used as an important index of folate status. It is suggested that adequate folate status i

Q. Management of Asymptomatic Patient? The most common cause of death in a truly asymptomatic patient with severe aortic stenosis is aortic valve replacement (AVR). While expec

Explain about the Niacin - Water Soluble Vitamin? Niacin is chemically synonymous with nicotinic acid although the term is also used for its amide (nicotinamide). Nicotinamide

Q. Show the Signs and symptoms of implant failure? Signs and symptoms of implant failure are : 1.  Horizontal mobility beyond 0.5 mm or any clinically observed vertical move

EXTERNA L EAR - It is an oval shaped, some what funnel like, skin covered flap of elastic cartilage and muscles. It's outer stiff ridge is called hellix. Lower flexibl

Ribavirin (Copegus, Rebetol, and others)  Combination treatment of HCV with peginterferon alfa and oral ribavirin has produced higher sustained response rates than peginterfero

As heart failure sets in, there is activation of RAS (Fig 2.1). Adrenergic stimulation of beta-1 receptors in juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidneys results in release of renin.

What are the predominating chemical compounds respectively in eggshell, white and yolk? The eggshell is essentially made of calcium carbonate. The white, or albumen, is compose

Structure-activity relationships Structure-activity relationships may be useful to increase the weight-of-evidence or human health hazards identification. Where classes of comp