Social determinants of health - transport, Biology

Social Determinants of Health - Transport

Rising worldwide incomes have led to a massive use of automobiles and in particular cars. Cars are seen as a threat to health because of their links to obesity, air pollution and traffic accidents. Some health experts call for a wide range of government interventions designed to limit the use of cars, encourage alternative forms of transport (ranging from building cycle lanes to turning current roads into green spaces). Alternative methods like allowing cars with even numbered plates to ply on certain days and odd numbered plates on others, auctioning the permission of buying cars to the highest bidder, etc. are followed in some countries.

The argument comes down to restricting the use of cars. However, it could also be argued that motor vehicles are an important tool of economic growth enabling goods and labour to be transported quickly and cheaply. They also enable isolated communities to participate in national or regional economy. They are thus valuable as a tool of social cohesion allowing families to stay in contact even while staying hundreds of miles away. The economic and social consequences of motor transport cannot therefore be ignored. An yet another suggestion made to minimise the threat to health by motorised vehicles is that planning regulations be tightened to stop the growth of low density suburbs and out of town supermarkets. The argument once again is that they increase the dependency on cars. Once again, such arguments are critiqued on the ground that they affect poor indirectly. For instance, restrictions on suburban development will constrain the housing supply, leading to rise in both general price level and the rental prices.

Also, restricting the ability of retailers to operate from out-of-town locations where land is cheaper will stimulate price inflation in city centres. The higher rents will be passed on to consumers via price rises. Again, these will hit the poor the hardest. A range of alternatives are available to reduce the health consequences of air pollution. For instance, encouraging free trade in motor vehicles by eliminating import tariffs will incentivise local industries to produce better cleaner fuels. Traffic and congestion on roads increase when roads are used as a ‘free good’. The harmful effects of air pollution can be curbed by better roads allowed to be used against ‘road pricing’. In cities where road pricing schemes have been implemented (as an alternative to road tax), this has led to more rational use of limited road space.

Posted Date: 12/17/2012 12:28:46 AM | Location : United States

Related Discussions:- Social determinants of health - transport, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Social determinants of health - transport, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Social determinants of health - transport Discussions

Write discussion on Social determinants of health - transport
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions
DIFFERENCE S BETWEEN SINGLE-UNIT AND MULTI-UNIT SMOOTH MUSCLES     Single-unit Smooth Muscles   Multi-uni t Smooth Muscles

????? # 100 ??????????? #Minimum ?????? ?????

Q. Why does the urinary volume increase when alcoholic beverages are ingested? Alcohol inhibits the ADH (antidiuretic hormone) secretion by the hypophysis and Low ADH reduces t

What functions performed by Vitamin and Mineral for athletes? Vitamins and minerals perform the same essential functions for athletes and non-athletes alike. However, owing t

Define Functions of Pyridoxine? There are three different forms of vitamin B6, namely pyridoxine, pyridoxarnine, and pyridoxal. All three must be phosphorylated and the 5'-phos

Autogamy - Patterns of Sexual Reproduction It is known to take place in many ciliate protozoans including Paramecium. Autogamy involves same nuclear behavior like in conjugati

Q. What is the relation between fecundation and the end of the meiotic process during oogenesis? The oocyte II only completes the second meiotic division (interrupted at metaph

Q. What does this fungus looks like? Ans. The important characteristic features of aflatoxicosis are jaundice, cirrhosis. Long term exposure to aflatoxins could lead to

Tetanus This is an infectious, non-febrile disease of animals and man, and is characterised by spasmodic tetany and hyperaesthesia. The causative agent is Clostridium tetani,