Snake bite, Biology

Snake bite

Biting by a poisonous snake is manifested by clinical findings of local swelling and nervous symptoms.

Etiology: The poisonous snakes have different types of toxins in variable amounts. These toxins have coagulant, anticoagulant, necrotising, haemolytic, neurotoxic or cardiotoxic fractions. Animals are bitten at the head or legs. Death is usually not seen in large animals because of their body size. However, small animals may succumb to death.

Pathogenesis: The neurotoxic fraction of venom causes paralysis, dilatation of pupil and respiratory failure. Cytolisin causes necrosis of tissue and cells. Coagulants cause clotting; haemolysin results in haemolysis while myotoxins result in muscle necrosis and myoglobinuria. The symptoms are dependent on the type of toxins present in venom and its amount.

Clinical signs: Initially there is local swelling and pain followed by excitement and anxiety. The animal shows dilatation of pupil, salivation, hyperesthesia, tetany, depression, incoordination, recumbency and paralysis. Later on, animal dies due to respiratory failure. There may be bacterial contamination of the wound leading to fever and septicaemia.

Diagnosis: It is diagnosed by history of snake bite, clinical symptoms and can be confirmed by ELISA test.

Treatment: About 15-20 cm above bites, tourniquet should be applied to prevent spread of venom. The bite area may be incised or pressure bandage be applied on the site of wound. Antivenom should be injected around the wound @ 1 unit/70 kg body weight in adults and 5 units in small animals. Broad-spectrum antibiotics like streptopenicillin, chloramphenicol or cephalosporin should be given to prevent the bacterial contamination of site. Fluid therapy is recommended to overcome shock. Use of corticosteriods and antihistaminics is of value in early recovery.

Posted Date: 9/20/2012 1:49:54 AM | Location : United States







Related Discussions:- Snake bite, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Snake bite, Get Answer, Expert's Help, Snake bite Discussions

Write discussion on Snake bite
Your posts are moderated
Related Questions

·          If we are in dangerous areas, water, gas and electricity should be turned off quickly and we should move to a higher level of ground.                  ·          It s


What are the main factors that alter the speed of enzymatic reactions? The major factors that change the speed of enzymatic reactions are temperature, pH and substrate concentr

Blood from the fetus circulates through the placenta. a) What substances pass (i) from the maternal to the fetal blood, (ii) from the fetal to the maternal blood?

Q. Vitamins requirement in dyslipidemia? Antioxidants and flavonoids, natural vitamin E, vitamins C and Aare nutrients (vitamins) that scavenge cell-damaging free radicals and

Q. Under which form is nitrogen fixed by living beings? The Most living beings can't use molecular nitrogen to obtain nitrogen atoms. The Producers fix nitrogen primarily from

Ecology and Ecosystem The concepts of environment, ecology, ecosystem, energy flow and nutrient cycling in the foundation course on Science and Technology. As you are aware ec

Q. What do you mean by Hemichordata ? Hemichordates re vermiform (worm-like) animals which have few characters like those of the chordates, hence the name hemichordata (hemi :

I need help in pipeline processing in computer architecture.