Side Efleects of Antipsychotic Drugs:
The most common side effects are symptoms of central nervous system i.e. Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS) including such as:
Parkinsonism, which occurs in 40 percent of presenting EPS. Patient present difficulty in mastication movement, weakness and muscle fatigue.
Akathisia, occur in 50 percent of all patient presenting EPS. Patient has strong urge to move about and has difficulty in sitting still. It occurs within two weeks of treatment. Dystonia occurs less than EPS. Patient develops contraction of muscles of the tongue, eye. jaw, and neck (producing torticollis) and extraoccular muscles.
Tardive Dyskinesia, is less frequent side effect of EPS. It occurs in 3 per cent of patient due to sudden withdrawal of drugs after giving for long time. The other side effect ill EPS is Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS), This is very rare but can be futal. The treatment for extra pyramidal symptoms are use of antiparkinsonian drugs. Antiparlunsonian drugs includc the anticholinergic and antihistamine drugs. Anticholinergic drugs block the secretion so they reduce the symptoms of akathisia and acute dystonia, whereas antihistamines have effect like anticholinergic drugs but ir is also effective to prevent tardive dpskinesia.