Science and Technology during the Renaissance: This phase in the history of science was one of description and criticism. First came the exploration of ancient knowledge, mainly of the Greeks. The scholars encountered the thoughts of Plato and Aristotle in the original, as well as those of Democritus and Archimedes. Then came the challenge to old authority. At the same time the arts and techniques flourished and provided the material means for the growth of science.
The visual arts, such as painting and sculpture, came to occupy an important place in society. These had a profound influence on the development of science. For instance, painters were required to have a thorough knowledge of geometry, so that they could represent three dimensional figures in two dimensions. For this, they also used many mechanical and optical aids. The realistic life-like paintings required the most detailed observations of nature and thus, laid the foundation of geology and natural history. The anatomy of human beings was also studied in much detail. The professions of artists, architects and engineers were not separated in the Renaissance. Artists were also the civil and military engineers. They could cast a statue, build a cathedral, drain a swamp or even besiege a town. The great Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci is well known to all of us for his beautiful painting 'Mona Lisa'. Not many of us may know of his contributions to the study of human anatomy, study of plants and animals as well as of machines and military devices. His drawings indicate that he was also a keen observer of the operations of metal-workers and technicians who constructed buildings sand bridge.