Ruminate Endosperm - Variants of Endosperm
In certain plants the surface of the mature cellular endosperm shows a high degree of irregularity and unevenness, giving a ruminated appearance (rumination means as if chewed). It is caused either by the activity of the seed coat or by the endosperm itself. Ruminate endosperm is found in about 32 families of Angiosperms.
On morphological basis, Periasamy (1962) distinguishes seven types: Annona, Passiflora, Myristica Spigelia, Verbascum and Coccoloba and Elytraria. In all these types except Elytraria irregularities occur in the growth of integuments which bring about the rumination of endosperm. In Elytraria during the development of seed, localized regions in the peripheral layers of cellular endosperm show active growth causing rumination.