Risk of embolization, Biology

Assignment Help:

Systemic embolization occurs in 22 per cent to 50 per cent of cases of IE. Emboli often involve major arterial beds, including lungs, coronary arteries, spleen, bowel, and extremities. Up to 65 per cent of embolic events involve the central nervous system, and 90 per cent of central nervous system emboli lodge in the distribution of the middle cerebral artery. The highest incidence of embolic complications is seen with aortic- and mitral-valve infections and in IE due to S aureus and Candida species and HACEK and Abiotrophia organisms. Emboli can occur before diagnosis, during therapy, or after therapy is completed, although most emboli occur within the first 2 to 4 weeks of antimicrobial therapy. The rate of embolic events drops dramatically during the first 2 weeks of successful antibiotic therapy, from 13 to .2 embolic events per 1000 patient-days. In general, mitral vegetations, regardless of size, are associated with higher rates of embolization (25 per cent) than aortic vegetations (10 per cent). The highest embolic rate (37 per cent) has been seen in the subset of patients with mitral vegetations attached to the anterior rather than the posterior mitral leaflet and with vegetation size > 1 cm in diameter. Staphylococcal or fungal IE appears to carry a high risk of embolization, i.e., independent of vegetation size. Large vegetations independently predict embolic events only in the setting of streptococcal IE. The embolic event rate among patients with IE and increasing vegetation size was twice that of patients with static or decreasing vegetation size over 4 to 8 weeks of therapy.  The indications for surgery for persistent vegetation after systemic embolization are:

1) Anterior mitral leaflet vegetation, particularly with size  > 10 mm

2) One or more embolic events during first 2 weeks of antimicrobial therapy

3) Two or more embolic events during or after antimicrobial therapy

4) Increase in vegetation size after 4 weeks of antimicrobial therapy

Related Discussions:- Risk of embolization

Reproduction, when pollen tube enters the embryo-sac,it has;

when pollen tube enters the embryo-sac,it has;

Lipid profile, Abnormalities in the lipid profile are found in patients wit...

Abnormalities in the lipid profile are found in patients with diabetes mellitus. The lipid abnormalities increase the risk of heart disease in diabetics and hence should be regular

How does the breathing process correct acidosis, Q. How does the breathing ...

Q. How does the breathing process correct acidosis? The increment of the respiratory frequency makes the body eliminate more carbon dioxide and to shift the equilibrium of the

Explain the autonomic neuropathy, Explain the Autonomic neuropathy It l...

Explain the Autonomic neuropathy It leads to dry skin due to decreased sweating. Dryness of the skin leads to cracking which makes entry of infection in to the deeper plane eas

Ichnology, Ichnology :  This is the study of foot prints. Ichnology is a ty...

Ichnology :  This is the study of foot prints. Ichnology is a type of branch of geology which deals with traces of organismal behavior like as burrows or footprints. It is commonly

What is the definition of ecology explain, What is the Definition of Ecolog...

What is the Definition of Ecology explain? Scientists use the term ecology to refer to the study of the relationships between organisms, and the relationships between organism

Mechanism of movement of chromosomes, The movement of the chromosome is cal...

The movement of the chromosome is called anaphase A, and the extension of the poles is termed anaphase B.The mechanism of these movements are discussed below. Chromosome move

Threatened species - wildlife, Threatened Species - Wildlife Many plan...

Threatened Species - Wildlife Many plant and animal species are threatened by the possibility of extinction. However, the seriousness of the threat varies. For example, a spec

Is geometric isomers have the same connectivity, Geometric isomers: Select ...

Geometric isomers: Select one: a. Have the same molecular weight b. Have the same connectivity c. Have a different configuration about a double bond d. All of the above

Write Your Message!

Free Assignment Quote

Assured A++ Grade

Get guaranteed satisfaction & time on delivery in every assignment order you paid with us! We ensure premium quality solution document along with free turntin report!

All rights reserved! Copyrights ©2019-2020 ExpertsMind IT Educational Pvt Ltd