Determine the purpose of the study: There must be a sound rationale or justification for every research project. If the pui-pose of the study is clearly presented and justified, the researcher will be more likely to receive approval for the study.
Review of literature: Research should build on previous knowledge. Before beginning the study, it is important to determine what knowledge exists for the study topic. Once you havk identified the problem, you need to examine what has been done already in your subject area and what is yet to be done. The review of literature involves mainly the research literature.
Develop a theoretical and conceptual framework
The goal of research is to develop scientific knowledge. Research and theory development are interlinked. Research can test theories as well as help to develop and refine theories. Thus theoretical frameworks are valuable part of scientific research. Theoretical and conceptual framework will assist in selection of the study variables and in defining them. The framework will also direct the hypothesis and interpretation of the findings.
ldentify the study of assumptions: Assumptions are belief that are held to be true but have not necessarily been proved. Each scientific investigation is based on assumptions. These assumptions should be stated clearly. Acknowledge the limitation of the study. Researcher should try to identify study limitations or weaknesses. Limitations are uncontrolled variables that may affect study results and limit the generalizability of the findings.
In nearly every nursing study, there are variables which are uncontrollable. These are called extraneous variables. For example, the educational level of subjects would be study limitation if researcher could not control this variable and it might influence the study results. The researcher should openly acknowiedge the limitations of the study before data collection. Other limitations may occur while the study is in progress (e.g. malfunctions of equipment and subject drop out). The limitations must be taken into consideration when the coinclusions of the study are formulated and when recommendations are made for future research.